Traits of economic importance in farm animals, selection of dairy heifers and bulls, use of standardized records, relative economic values, breeding values and selection indices; crossbreeding for milk and meat production; Traits of economic importance in poultry and their improvement, formation of breeding stock for layers and broilers, development of dual purpose birds and rural poultry. System of breeding and selection in beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep and horses. National breeding policy for improvement and conservation of livestock. Review of the animal breeding practices used by the developed countries.Genetic resistance, Future breeding plans for genetic improvement of farm animals in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. Emerging bio-technologies for increasing animal productivity.


Exercises on the maintenance and standardization of productive and reproductive records. Estimation breeding value using standardized records. Exercises on the estimation of relative economic values. Construction of selection indices for large and small animals. Orientation of computer packages for animal conservation and evaluation.

Books Recommended

  1. Lasley, J. F. 1987. Genetics of Livestock Improvement. Prentice-Hall international Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.
  2. McDowell, R.E. 1994. Dairying with Improved Breeds in Warm Climates. Kinnic Publishers, Inc., Raleigh, NC. USA.
  3. Muir, W.M. and S.E. Aggrey. 2003. Poultry Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK.
  4. Simm, G. 1998. Genetic Improvement of Cattle and Sheep. Farming Press, Miller Freeman, UK.
  5. KINTORE . 2013. Recent Advances In Animal Breeding. 2013
  6. Text book of Animal Breeding and Genetics by John Van Arendonk