This Course will introduce students to the history, concepts, principles, marketing, planning and management of ecotourism activities and development which promote cultural and environmental awareness and local economic benefits. The study will enable the students in understanding significance of eco-tourism and park management. This study will help the students how to create systems and the regulatory environment which support the development of ecotourism opportunities which provide enjoyment, appreciation and understanding of natural areas and to promote these opportunities effectively and responsibly.  

Graduates will be able to establish, operate and manage ecotourism enterprises and will be able to document and locate major ecotourism destinations in Pakistan. They will be able to identify the range of stakeholders and interest groups associated with national parks, reserve lands and urban open space and they will be able to compare the different forms of land tenure that make up national parks and reserve lands and to identify different management issues associated with different tenures. The graduates will also be able to identify and analyse key issues affecting contemporary park management. Moreover, they will also be able to anaylse and describe the application of ecological concepts in land use planning.


  1. Concepts of tourism, nature based tourism and sustainable tourism.
  2. Ecotourism Resources: landscapes, endemic or rare flora and fauna.
  3. Effects of tourism on plants and animals population
  4. Economics of eco-tourism
  5. Ecotourism Services:  transportation, food, lodging, guiding and interpretation services which cause minimal damage to the biological and cultural environments and promote a better understanding of the natural and cultural history of an area.
  6. Developing and execution of plans for eco-tourism under different conditions.

Park Management

  1. Introduction: Definition, Importance of recreation and park management.
  2. Forests as outdoor recreational areas. Significance of Parks. Study of important National Parks of Pakistan.
  3. Development of Facilities: Camp Ground, Picnic areas, Organized camps and Interpretative facilities.
  4. Duties of Park Manager.
  5. Landscaping, Plant material for landscaping. Introduction to arboriculture. Propagation of plants. Nursery practices and management. Protected areas systems.

Recommended Books

  1. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development by Honey, M. 1999.  Island Press, Washington DC, USA.
  2. Forest Recreation and Park Management by Naeem Javid Muhammad Hassani. 2009. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar

Suggested Books

  1. Adventure Foundation Pakistan.2004. Support to Promotion of Eco-tourism, Initiatives by Palas Conservation and Development Project (Consultancy No. 53), Pattan, Distt. Kohistan.

Assessment Criteria

Mid Term Exam: 12

Sessional: 08 (Assignment + Presentation)

Final Exam: 20

Course Material