Course Description

The purpose of this course outlines the nature of geographical concepts and the enquiry approach, and explains their significance in geographical learning. Teaching of history & geography is the integrated, coordinated and systematic study drawing upon disciplines of social sciences such as history, anthropology, economics, political science and sociology in relation to Pakistan. This course explains modes of creativity and the stages of the ‘creative’ process in geographical teaching and learning. This course will identify and explore some of the key issues around teaching geography in elementary and secondary schools. Through coming to understand these issues and debates, students will reflect on and develop practice as a geography teacher and develop a greater awareness of the wider context of geography education and how this affects geography in the elementary and secondary school curriculum. This course enables prospective teachers to teach the content effectively in the classroom by using appropriate teaching strategies and methods in history & geography.

Course Objectives

Students will be able to;

  1. Develop lesson plans in history and geography
  2. Teach the content effectively in the classroom by using appropriate teaching strategies and methods in history & geography.
  3. Distinguish the environmental changes and their impact
  4. Comprehend the Geographical features of Pakistan
  5. Locate and teach the soil and its link with agricultural production and livestock

Course Outline


  1. Physiography
    1. What is  Physiography
    2. Mountains
    3. Plateaus
    4. Plains
  2. Climate
    1.  Climate and weather
    2. Temperature and atmosphere
    3. Rainfall
    4. winds
    5. Air Pressure
  3. Hydrology
    1. Hydrology of Pakistan
    2. Glaciers of Pakistan
    3. Rivers of Pakistan
    4. Lakes of Pakistan
    5. Agriculture general
    6. Minerals of Pakistan
  1. Human settlements
    1. Indus valley civilization
    2. The Aryan Era
    3. Socio-cultural development
    4. Foundation
  2. Mughal’s Rule in India
    1.  Rule of Babar and Hamayun
    2. Rule of Akbar
    3. Rule of Jahngir
    4. Rule of Shajahan
    5.  Rule of Aurangzeb Alamgir
  3. Effect of Islam on Hindu Society
    1. Political affects
    2. Social affects
    3. Economic affects
    4. Religious affects
  4. Role of Sufia in Promotion of Islam
    1.  Chishtia Chain/Order
    2.  Saharwardia Chain/Order
    3.  Qadaria Chain/Order
    4.  Naqshbandia Chain/Order
  5. Teaching
    1. Teaching history and geography
    2. Use of A.V-aids in teaching history
    3. Use of A.V-aids in geography
    4. Planning lessons
    5. Imparting instruction
  6. Methods of teaching in History and Geography I
    1. Expository method
    2. Laboratorial or practical method
    3. Demonstration
    4. Discussion method
  7. Methods of teaching in History and Geography II
    1. Problem solving method
    2. Project method
    3. Discovery and inquiry method
    4. Activity based teaching

Recommended Text:

1.     Punjab Text Book Board (2018). Curriculum for Geography grades vi -viii. Lahore: Punjab Text Book Board.

2.     Mass, P. (2015) .Oxford history for Pakistan (book, I.II and III). Oxford: OUP.

Suggested Readings:

1.     Sit, V. (2016). Integrated geography: Book -1, 2 and 3. (2nd Ed.) Hong Kong: Longman. Hong

        Kong Education.

2.     Smith, M. (Ed.). (2015). Teaching of geography in secondary schools. London: The Open University Press.

3.    San, W.S., et al (2016). Understanding geography. (Book 1 &2). Singapore: Kogan Page