• The main objective of the course is to impart knowledge about the animal cell and its complex organization of architecture and to provide understanding about the unified role of a cell for the ultimate sustainability of the organisms. 
  • The course will enable students to understand various ultra-structural, molecular and functional aspects of the cells will be communicated in this course.

    Couse Title:               Cell and Molecular Biology

    Course Code:            ZOL-503 (BS-Zoology), ZOOL-6203 (MSc- Zoology)

  • Cr. Hrs:                      3+1

    Classes:                   BS 5th Semester (Regular  & Self Support)

                                     MSc 1st Semester (Regular)

    Course Instructor:    Dr. Shafaat Yar Khan

    Pre-requisite: Undergrad level understanding of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Learning outcomes:

    The students will develop a better understanding of the functional properties of living systems from the level of the cell, through tissues and organs.  They will learn  how these levels interact at the level of the whole organism. In addition, the student will gain knowledge on how these physiological systems enable animals to interact with their environment and adapt accor

    Other requirements:

  • A functional email address
  • An internet connection
  • Good use of MS office program
    1. MS Word,
    2. MS power point,
    3. Adobe Acrobat reader (for pdf.)
  • The students who will enroll in the course will get relevant reading material at the start of the course.

  • Introduction to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  • Cytoskeleton
  • Cytoplasmic Organelles: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria and Mitochondrial respiration; Lysosome, Peroxisome, Glycoxysome .
  • Nucleus
  • DNA Replication 
  • Transcription
  • Posttranscriptional processing
  • Genetic code, point mutations.
  • Translation
  • Readings:

  • Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., Watson, J.D. Molecular Biology of the Cell. (6th edition Garland Publishing Inc. New York, 2017)
  • De Robertis, E. D. P. Cell and Molecular Biology (8th Edition, Lea & Febiger, New York, 2017)
  • Karp, J. Cell and Molecular Biology, Concepts and Experiments (Jhon Wiley and Sons, INC, 2005.)
  • Damell Jr. J., Lodisch, H., Balimore, D. Molecular Cell Biology. (Scientific American Inc.New York, 2013)
  • Geoffrey M.C., Robert E.H. The cell: A Molecular Approach (Sinauer Associates, INC, 2007).
  •  Online sources
  • Practicals

  • Identification of cell organelles
  • Preparation of temporary whole mount.
  • Preparation of permanent whole mount (demonstration)
  • Preparation of human blood smear and identification of Leucocytes.
  • Tissues (permanent slides of epithelial tissues, striated muscle, smooth muscle, cartilage, bone).
  • Squash preparation of onion root tip for mitotic stages.
  • Mounting of polytene chromosome (Drosophila/Chironomous.) Demonstration.
  • Detection and quantitative determination of chromosomal DNA and RNA.
  • Cultural and staining of bacteria and yeast.
  • Separation of different sized DNA fragments on agarose gel.
  • Isolation and characterization of proteins on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native and sub-unit molecular weights).

    Sessional: 10% (Presentation:  5% and Participation:  5%)

    Practical: 15%

    Midterm exam/ Term paper: 25 %

    Final exam: 50%

  • Time Table:                    

    BS 5th Semester Regular (2018-2022) Spring semester


    08:00-10:00 AM


    11:00-12:00 PM


    12:00-1:00 PM


    9:00-10:00 AM


    BS 5th Semester Self Support (2018-2022) Spring semester


    03:00-4:00 PM


    03:00-4:00 PM


    03:00- 4:00 PM


    02:00- 4:00 PM


    M.Sc. 1st Semester Regular (2020-2022) Spring semester


    01:00-02:00 PM


    01:00-02:00 PM


    09:00- 10:00 AM


Course Material