Course Title:             Advances in Molecular Biology

Course Code:           ZOOL-7102

Credit Hrs:                03

Course Instructor:   Dr. Shafaat Yar Khan

Class:                       M.Phil  1st Semester

Pre-requisite:           Graduate level understanding of Molecular Biology


This course is the explanation of the structure and function of molecules, including DNA and RNA, which allow genes to be expressed and be maintained from one generation to the next. Recent years have seen explosive advances in the study of DNA and molecular genetics, including gene cloning, sequencing and mapping. Developments in molecular biology have opened new areas of study and provided powerful techniques that are revolutionizing the pharmaceutical, health, and agricultural industries. The aim is to provide the students with a detailed understanding of the regulation systems for the expression of genes, the genetic nature of developmental pathologies, the different forms of human genetic defects contributing to disorders and of the pathways between the genotype and the phenotype. The key ideas and values of recombinant DNA technology and relevant uses and problems related to popular understanding will also be discussed. Students will also learn about genetic engineering, its application, and the ethical issues associated with its use.

Learning outcome:

The students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the advance and current knowledge in molecular biology at cellular level. The students will obtain an in depth knowledge of  processes involved in transcription, tranlsation and control of grene regulation both in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The molecular details in DNA demage and repair and role of oxidative stress in these processes. The course will impart knowledge about the ongoing developments due to molecular biology for human.

Other requirements:

  1. A functional email address
  2. An internet connection
  3. Good use of MS office program
    1. MS Word,
    2. MS power point,
    3. Adobe Acrobat reader (for pdf.)

The students who will enroll in the course will get relevant reading material at the start of the course

1. Structural explanation of DNA
2. Concept of gene
3. Chromatin to chromosome structure and function
4. Molecular mechanisms DNA of replication.
5. Transcription and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
6. Transcriptional and translational regulation of gene expression
7. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes (operon model and types with examples)
8. Regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes
9. Types of recombination
10. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations
11. DNA damage, repair and disrepair
12. Gene sequencing &Principles of Recombinant DNA technology
13. Role of Recombinant DNA Technology in economic development
14. Human Genome Project

1. Karp, G., Iwasa, J., & Marshall, W. (2019). Karp’s cell and molecular biology: concepts and experiments (9th ed.). USA: Wiley.

2. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., & Watson, J. D. (2002). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland.



  • Sessional: 20% (Presentation  & Class Participation)
  • Midterm exam/ Term paper: 30 %
  • Final exam: 50%

TIme table M.Phil 1st Semester (2020) -Fall Semester -:

Wednesday :         02:00 -03:00 PM

Thursday:             01:00-02:00 PM

Friday:                 12:00-01:00 PM

Course Material