Course Title:             Immunology

Course Code:            ZOL-632 (Optional)

Cr. Hrs:                       3+1

Classes:                     BS 8th Semester (Regular)

Course Instructor:    Dr. Shafaat Yar Khan


The course aims to give an understanding of the basic concepts of immunology and its importance in biological sciences, provides information about immunological mechanisms against different diseases and Give an understanding of immunization, immunological tolerance etc.

Learning outcome:

The students will develop the basic notion of immunology and components of the immune system. They will learn the interaction of antigen and antibodies in disease conditions. This will lead to the advancement of their knowledge about immunity, immunological tolerance and transplant immunology. In addition, they will learn the basic techniques in immunology as well.

Other requirements:

  1. A functional email address
  2. An internet connection
  3. Good use of MS office program
    1. MS Word,
    2. MS power point,
    3. Adobe Acrobat reader (for pdf.)

The students who will enroll in the course will get relevant reading material at the start of the course.

Course Contents:

  1. Overview of the immune system Historical perspective,
  2. Innate and acquired immunity. Primary and secondary immune responses.
  3. Cells and organs of immune systems.
  4. Antigens
  5. Immunoglobulins structure and function basics structure.
  6. Antigen antibody, interactions,  cross reactivity, precipitant, agglutination reaction RIA and ELISA, western blotting, immuno-flourescence.
  7. Classification, phagocytic humoral, cell mediated and combined humoral and cell mediated deficiencies.
  8. Introduction and importance of MHC complex.
  9. Basics of allergy, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.
  10. Fundamentals of transplantation immunology..
  11. Basics of cytokines, their types and importance.​

Readings:​ ​

  1.  KUBY’S IMMUNOLOGY, 2002. 4th Ed. Richard, A., Goldsby, Thomas, J. Kindt and Barbara, A. Osborn. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York.
  2. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY, 1994. 2nd Ed. Abbas Lichtman & Pober, W.B. Saunders Co​​.
  3. Online resources.


  1. Study of different types of leucocytes in: Blood, Bone marrow, Spleen and Thymus in mammals.
  2.  Estimations of total serum proteins, albumins and globulin concentrations in mammalian blood.
  3. Differentiation  of  globulin  proteins  in  blood  serum  of  mouse  by electrophoresis.
  4. Diagnosis  of  immunoglobulin  proteins  by  enzyme  linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA).
  5. Isolation of lymphocytes and resetting technique.
  6.  Antigen-antibody  reaction  by  agglutination  and  precipitation reaction.
  7. Diagnosis of typhoid fever by Widal test.
  8. Visit to pathological laboratory and report writing


  • Sessional: 10% (Presentation:  5% and Participation:  5%)
  • Practical: 15%
  • Midterm exam/ Term paper: 25 %
  • Final exam: 50%

Time table:

Time table BS 8th Semester Regular (2016-2020)

Spring Semester


12:00 -2:00 PM


12:00- 1:00 PM


10:00- 11:00 AM


9:00-10:00 AM

Course Material