This course is designed to understand the micro-fossils found in geological formations and Tertiary biostratigraphy rock units in Pakistan. Micropaleontology is concerned with microfossils and nannofossils, the study of which must, of necessity, be carried out using the light or electron microscope. To achieve this course, the microfossil must be studied in terms of morphology, structure, chemical and mineralogical composition and taxonomy to discover their origin and systematic affinities. The course is designed to acquire knowledge about the microfossils and micro-organisms and their role in interpretation of depositional environment. This will help the student to identify various types of microfossils and to understand their role in depositional systems of major sedimentary basins. Application of these microfossils in the field of oil-exploration, biostratigraphy, paleobiology and paleoclimatology is essential. This subject emphasizes on the microfossils that lived in or under sea water. Thus, interaction with the present-day physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the ocean water will be also addressed. The course will introduce the major marine and non-marine invertebrate taxonomic groups found in the fossil record and what we know about them – their stratigraphic range, modes of life, and environmental preferences.
Students will determine the background of various microfossil groups, they have the ability to date rocks based on microfossils. They have an ability of paleoenvironmental interpretations based on microfossils. They can get stratigraphic and tectonic interpretations. They will have knowledge and ability to understand the knowledge of the main systematic groups of microfossils, its distribution and (paleo) environmental and (paleo) climatic meaning. Skills development on methods and techniques of biostratigraphy and palaeobiology applied to the microfossils. They can use the application of knowledge and understanding:
Collect, organize and analyze descriptive data of microfossils and associated sedimentary materials using adequate concepts, methodologies and techniques.
Perform laboratory and field work with security, with analytical accuracy and capacity of search autonomy. They can know how to make a micropaleontological sampling in the field; Provide basic knowledge on the sample preparation; define criteria for microfossil recognition and their use in paleoecologic and stratigraphic reconstructions; define their role as geologic agents and their utility for describing and modeling the biologic evolution.
- Saraswati, P. K., & Srinivasan, M. S. (2015). Micropaleontology: Principles and applications. Springer.
- Armstrong, H., & Brasier, M. (2013). Microfossils. John Wiley & Sons.
- BouDagher-Fadel, M. K. (2012). Biostratigraphic and geological significance of planktonic foraminifera. University College London Press.
Course Start Date: October 12, 2020
Course End Date: February 04, 2021
Monday 11:00 AM -12:00 PM
Tuesday 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM
Wednesday 11:00 AM -12:00 PM
Sessional: 20 [Assignments (05) Presentations (05) Quiz (05) Attendance (05)]
Mid Term (Term paper): 30
Final exam: 50