Watershed management is the management of watershed area to achieve certain objectives. The objectives can be conservation of soil and water, regulation of stream flow regime, flood control, reduction of sediments, ground water recharge etc. the life of people in plains is directly related to management of upper watershed areas. Watershed management is closely related to forest management as the forestry practices plays a critical role in it.

The basic objectives of studying this course are:

  • To introduce basic concepts of Watershed and its management.
  • To clarify the close relationship of water and soil.
  • To devote the practical possibilities of vegetation management for better water yield

Students will be well aware about the basic concepts of Watershed Management and applications




1.   Introduction to Watershed Management: Definition, importance, need, scope and application of Watershed & Watershed Management, The Hydrological Cycle

2.   Precipitation: Definition, formation & types of Precipitation, measurement of Rain & Snow, Influence of Vegetation on Precipitation, Influence on formation, interception and redistribution of precipitation

4.   Run-off and its components: Types of run-off, factors affecting the runoff, infiltration & percolation, various forms of soil moisture, measurement of Runoff

5.   Evapo-transpiration: Definition, meteorological factors effecting the evapo-transpiration, measurement of  evapo-transpiration(ET)

6.   Erosion and Sedimentation: Definition, Types of erosion & factors effecting erosion, Hydric erosion, sediment movement & deposition

7.   Soil Conservation in Watershed Management: Managing watershed range & crop lands, biological and structural soil conservation measures

8.   Modern concepts in Watershed Management: Participatory & integrated watershed Management, Watershed planning, climate change, watershed Management for sustainable livelihood etc.




  1. Calculation of mean precipitation in a watershed by different methods
  2. Determination of features of Watershed: Drainage density, Mean elevation, Area, Drop per Kilometer & Mean slope



  1. J.E. Raeder-Roitzsch. 1968. Watershed Management; abstract of lectures held at Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.
  2. Champion, H.G., S.K. Seth and G.M. Khattak (1965). Forest Types of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.


Sessional marks:     08  (Assignment+ Presentation)

Mid exam marks:    12

Final exam marks:  20

Practical:                 20

Course Material