Healthy ecosystems and rich biodiversity are fundamental to life on our planet. Climate change is affecting the habitats of several species, which must either adapt or migrate to areas with more favorable conditions. Even small changes in average temperatures can have a significant effect upon ecosystems. The inter-connected nature of ecosystems means that the loss of species can have knock-on effects upon a range of ecosystem functions. Keeping in view the situation knowledge about the biodiversity and climate is the need of the time. The objectives of this course are:

To equip the students with knowledge and importance of biodiversity and climate change

 Learn skills and techniques to conserve biodiversity, mitigate global warming and climate change.

Student will be well aware about the importance of biodiversity which will ultimately play key role in future for conservation of biodiversity. They will be equipped with knowledge how to conserve it and how to mitigate climate change.


  1. Definition of biodiversity and its scope.
  2. Factors affecting biodiversity of flora and fauna (human population, industrialization and unsustainable land uses).
  3. Biodiversity status of flora and fauna in various zones/regions. Threatened and endangered mammals, birds, and plant species in Pakistan.
  4. Biodiversity rich areas and hotspots.
  5. Conservation and management strategy for biodiversity in Pakistan.
  6. Ecosystem based adaptation
  7. The concept of climate change and its harmful effects. Causes of climate change.
  8. Climate change assessment and predictions.
  9. Recommended actions to reduce global warming and climate change.
  10. International treaties and conventions on biodiversity and climate change.



Field: Visit different sites to assess the status of biodiversity.

Filed: Visit to biodiversity conservation projects.

Field: learning various methods to reduce global warming.


  1. Syed Said Badshah Bukhari and Dr. Ghulam Ali Bajwa. 2012. Development of National response strategy to combat impacts of climate change on forest of Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.
  2. K.M. Siddiqui.1997. Forestry and Environment. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.
  3. Shahid Rashid Awan and Ghulam Akbar. Biodiversity of salt range Punjab, Pakistan. WWF.

Assessment Criteria

Sessional marks:     08  (Assignment+Presentation)

Mid exam marks:    12

Final exam marks:  20

Practical :                20




Course Material