An invertebrate is any animal without an internal backbone which includes animals such as insects, crustaceans, worms, jellyfish and sponges. The diversity of invertebrate species far outnumbers that of the vertebrate animals. ... The remaining invertebrates constitute between 12-15% of all animal  species. The Invertebrates unit explores six groups of invertebrates --- poriferans (sponges), cnidarians (such as sea jellies and corals), echinoderms (such as sea urchins and sea stars), mollusks (such as octopuses, snails, and clams), annelids (worms), and arthropods (such as insects, spiders, and lobsters). They are multicellular. All the cells have different responsibilities in keeping the animal alive. They have no cell walls, like all other animals. They reproduce by two reproductive cells, or gametes, coming together to produce a new organism of their species.

Assessment methods


Presentations & assignment               20

Practicals:                                           20

Mid Term Exam:                                 20

Final exam:                                        40

Course Work Plan and evaluation criteria for BS Botany 2nd Semester

Subject:  Diversity of animal (invertebrates)                        Credit hours:  4 (3+1)

Course code: ZOOL-5102


Course description

Week 1

Invertebrates introduction; classification of organism; evolutionary relationship and tree diagram; pattern of organization

Week 2

Animal like protest: The protozoa, life within a single plasma membrane; evolutionary perspective, maintenance function, symbiotic relationship

Week 3

Protozoans taxonomy (phyla, sub phyla, super classes) locomotion, cilia and pellicle structures, reproduction; further phylogenetic consideration

Week 4

Multicellular and Tissue Levels of Organization: origins of multicellularity; animal origins. Phylum porifera: cell types, body wall, and skeletons; water currents and body forms; maintenance functions; reproduction..

Week 5

Phylum Cnidarian (coelenterate) the body wall and nematocysts; alternation of generations; maintenance functions; reproduction and classification up to class. Phylum Ctenophora; further phylogenetic considerations

Week 6

Triploblastic and Acoelomate Body Plan: Phylum Platyhelminthes: classification up to class; the free-living flatworms and the tapeworms; Phylum Nemertea; Phylum Gastrotricha; further phylogenetic considerations

Week 7

Pseudocoelomate Body Plan: Aschelminths: general characteristics; classification up to phyla with external features; feeding and the digestive system; Phylum Rotifera and Phylum Nematoda; Phylum Kinorhyncha organ systems; reproduction and development. Some important nematode parasites of humans; further phylogenetic considerations.

Week 8


Week 9

Mollusca Success: relationships to other animals; origin of the coelom; molluscan characteristics; classification up to class. The characteristics of shell and associated structures, feeding, digestion,

Week 10

Gas exchange, locomotion, reproduction and development, other maintenance functions and diversity in gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods; further phylogenetic considerations.

Week 11

Annelida: The Metameric Body Form: relationship to other animals, metamerism and tagmatization; External structure and locomotion, feeding and the digestive system, gas exchange and circulation, nervous and sensory functions, excretion,

Week 12

Regeneration, reproduction and development in different classes of annelids ; further phylogenetic considerations.

Week 13

Arthropods: Blueprint for Success: classification and relationships to other animals; metamerism and tagmatization; the exoskeleton;

Week 14

Metamorphosis; Classification up \ to class; further phylogenetic considerations; phylogeny and adaptive diversification.

Week 15

Assignment+ presentation+ Quiz(5+5+10)

Study of representative Phyla, Permanent slide preparations and Lab manual

Week 16

Final term







































Book Reference: Stephen A. Miller and John P. Harley Edition: 5TH 02 Copyright: 2002 Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Published: 2002



Course Material