Physiology integrates across levels of biological organisation from molecules to populations. Physiological processes have their basis in the laws of chemistry and physics. Physiological diversity among animals is the result of evolutionary processes. Animal physiology is the scientific study of the life-supporting properties, functions and processes of animals or their parts. The discipline covers key homeostatic processes, such as the regulation of temperature, blood flow and hormones. The physiology of farm animals has direct significance for livestock breeding, zootechny,    and veterinary science. Physiology is most closely associated with medicine, which utilizes the achievements of physiology to diagnose, treat, and prevent a variety of diseases.

Assessment methods


Presentations & assignment               20

Practicals:                                           20

Mid Term Exam:                                 20

Final exam:                                        40

Course Work Plan and evaluation criteria for Botany 4th Semester     

Subject:  Principles of animal physiology                           Credit hours:  4 (3+1)

Course code: ZOL-204


Course description

Week 1

Protection, support and movement: protection: the integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates.

Week 2

Movement: non-muscular movement,: an introduction to animal muscles: the muscular system of vertebrates and invertebrates.

Week 3

Communication I: Nerves: neurons, structure and function, neuron communication: Introductory account of resting membrane potential.

Week 4

Action potential and transmission of action potential between cells, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system, the spinal cord ,spinal nerves, the brain and cranial nerves.

Week 5

Autonomic nervous system and communication II: senses: sensory receptors, chemoreceptor, barroreceptors, georecptors and hygroreceptors of invertebrates.

Week 6

Photoreceptors, propriocecptors, tactile receptors and thermorecptors of invertebrates. Lateral line system, electrical sensing, mechanoreceptors, hearing and equilibrium in air

Week 7

Hearing and equilibrium in water in vertebrates. Skin sensors of damaging stimuli,, heat and cold, mechanical stimuli, sonar ,smell ,taste and vision in vertebrates.

Week 8

Midterm exams

Week 9

Communication II: endocrine system and chemical messengers: hormone chemistry and their feedback systems, mechanism of hormone action, some hormones of Porifera, Cnidarians, Platyhelminths and Nemertians.

Week 10

Hormones of Nematodes, Molluscs, Annelids, Arthropods and Echinoderms. An overview of vertebrate echinoderm system.

Week 11

Echinoderm system of birds and mammals.

Week 12

Circulation, immunity and gaseous exchange: internal transport and circulatory system in invertebrates, characteristics of invertebrate coelomic fluid, hemolymph and blood cells. Transport system in vertebrates.

Week 13

Characteristics of vertebrate blood, blood cells and vessels, the heart and circulatory system of bony fishes, amphibians ,reptiles ,birds and mammals.

Week 14

The human heart, blood pressure, and lymphatic system. Immunity: no specific defenses, the immune responses and gaseous exchange.

Week 15

Assignment+ presentation+ Quiz(5+5+10)

Human respiratory system ,gas transport and Lab manual

Week 16

Final term

Book Reference 

  1. Stephen A. Millerand John P. Harley Edition: 5TH 02 Copyright: 2002  Publisher: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Published: 2002 
  2. . Randall, D., Burggren, W., French, K. and Fernald, R., 2002. Eckert Animal Physiology: Mechanisms and Adaptations, 5th Ed. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York
  3.  Cindy L. Stanfield. 2013. Principles of human physiology -5th ed. Pearson Education, Inc.
  4.  Widmaier, EP., Vander, AJ. 2019. Vander’s human physiology: the mechanisms of body function. New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education
  5.  Fox SI. Human physiology. 2016. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121.

Course Material