**CT-213 Fluid Mechanics 4 (3+1)**

The flow of fluids is important in many applications ranging from blood flow in the human body to the air flow over the wing of a jet aircraft and water flowing in pipes, canals and rivers. As a result, fluid mechanics is not only the providence of the civil engineer, but is truly a multi-disciplinary field attracting researchers in mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, materials science, petroleum engineering, environmental science, meteorology, geology, and astronomy. This course will help students in understanding the nature of fluid statics, in particular dealing with problems related to hydrostatic forces and to analyze the problems related to elementary fluid dynamics especially for incompressible flows using Bernoulli equation in particular. Students will develop skills to use flow Measurement devices like ventrimeter and Pitot tube. Students will characterize and determine the forces resulting from the interaction of flow with immersed bodies. In addition this course will enable students to solve problems relating to pipe flow and open channel flow.

*Contents*

- Introduction: Applications of fluid mechanics.
- Units and dimensions
- Physical Properties of Fluids: Density, specific weight and specific gravity. Viscosity. Newton’s law of viscosity Fluid Statics:
- Pressure. Absolute and gauge pressure. Measurement of pressure, Piezometer, manometer, differential manometer and bourdon gauge.
- Buoyancy, Metacenter and metacentric height.
- Fluid Kinematics: Basic concepts from steady and unsteady flow. Laminar and turbulent flow. Uniform and non-uniform flow. Velocity and discharge. Continuity equation
- Hydrodynamics: Different forms of energy in a flowing liquid, Energy head, Bernoulli’s equation and its applications Flow Measurement: Measurement of velocity. Pitot tube. Measurement of discharge through orifices, notches, weirs and venturimeter
- Steady Flow Through Pipes: Darcy Weisbach equation for flow in pipes. Hazen William’s formula, Losses in pipelines, hydraulic grade lines and energy lines
- Uniform Flow in Open Channels: Chazy’s and Manning equation, Most efficient economical rectangular and trapezoidal sections

*Recommended Texts: *

- N. B. Webber,
*Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers*, (Chapman & Hall), (Latest Edition) - Dougherty, Franzine and Fennimore,
*Fluid Mechanics with Engineering Applications*, (McGraw Hill, New York) (Latest Edition)

*Suggested Readings:*

- J. A. Fox,
*An Introduction to Engineering Fluid Mechanics*, (Macmillan Company) (Latest Edition) - B. S. Massey, Wan Nost,
*Mechanics of Fluids*, (Reinhold International Ran hold Company Ltd., London) (Latest Edition) - J. W. Ireland,
*Mechanics of Fluids*, (Bulterworth& Company, London) (Latest Edition).