CT-322                                                      Introduction to Earthquake Engineering                                                    3 (2+1)


Introduction to Earthquake Engineering is the fundamental course incorporated in Civil Engineering Technology curriculum to provide students initial apprehension of earthquake. The course content includes basic theory of earthquake, generation of seismic waves, their propagation, recording and striking any structure, then response of structure to seismic waves and types of motion against the waves. Tectonic Plate Theory is the fundamental theory describing the movement of tectonic plates and their interaction. Strain energy produced in plates in case of collision, results in seismic waves which propagate inside and outside earth body. The discussion on recording of seismic waves and the responsive forces produced in a structure subject to the waves is also considered in the course. Since, this is basic course towards earthquake engineering, therefore, only Single Degree of Freed.om (SDOF) is studied in detail whereas, Multi-Degree of Freed.om (MDOF) is only introduced.. Moreover, zoning of Pakistan with respect to earthquake is also a small part of the content.



  • Introduction, Earthquake magnitude & intensity, importance of ground conditions, Nature of seismic forces, Factors affecting the severity of seismic forces,  Damping,  response  spectrum,  Ductility,  Resisting  seismic  forces, capacity design, Role of diaphragm, Bond beams, Collectors and ties, Shear walls, Braced frames, Moment resisting frames, Non-structural elements, Retrofitting its objectives, approaches & Techniques, seismic isolation, Dampers,  Theory  of  plate  Tectonics,  Lumped  mass  and  distributed  mass, Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) and Multiple Degree of Freedom (MDOF), Seismic waves


Recommended. Texts

  1. Agarwal, P.  and  Shrihande, M.  Earthquake  resistant  design  of structures: Prentice Hall of India


Suggested. Readings

  1. Charleson, A. Seismic  Design  for  Architects: ISBN:  978-0-  7506-8550-4

Course Material