### Statistics (COMS-310)

Introduction

This is the general Statistics course designed for undergraduate programs of arts and social sciences. Statistics is an integral part of arts and social science research. We live in a world where there is no shortage of numerical data and there is an increasing demand for people who know how to make sense of it independent of the field of work. The goal of this course is to turn the students into one of such categories. In this course, students will learn the basics of descriptive and inferential statistics and the most commonly used statistical techniques found in arts and social science research. The course is designed to give the students an in-depth understanding of how these statistical techniques work but minimizing the mathematical burden on the student. While more focus will be given on the statistical analysis with the help of some statistical software SPSS, Excel etc. Moreover, focus will be on the interpretation of statistical data results which are obtained from the statistical software. So these activities will improve the analytical and research activities of arts and social science students.

Contents

1.       Introduction to statistics: descriptive and inferential statistics, scope and limitations of statistics

2.       Variable, data, types of variable and data, scales of measurements.

3.       Display of data: Tabulation of data, graphical display, histogram, charts, stem and leaf plots.

4.       Measures of central tendency: mean median, mode, box plot, and application in real life.

5.       Measures of dispersion: range, quartile deviation, mean deviation, variance and standard deviation

6.       Coefficient of variation, z-score and their application.

7.       Normal distribution: normal distribution and its application,

8.       Sampling and sampling distribution.

9.       Hypothesis testing: z test, t-test, chi-square test

10.   Regression analysis: simple linear regression, multiple regression.

11.   Correlation analysis: Simple correlation, multiple correlation, partial correlation, partial correlation.

12.   Test of independence between qualitative variables

13.   All the observational analysis will be carried out using MS Excel and SPSS.

1.       Ross, S. M. (2010). Introductory statistics (3rd ed.). New York: Academic Press.

2.       Dunn, D.S. (2001). Statistics and data analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill.

3.       Chaudhry, S. M., & Kamal, S. (2010). Introduction to statistical theory part I &II. Pakistan: Ilmi Kitab Khana.

Class Time

• Every Monday and Tuesday from 8:00 AM to 9:30 AM (reg)
• Every Monday and Tuesday from 2:00 PM to 3:30 PM (SS)