Course Description:

This course is based on the study of the role of civil and military bureaucracy in Pakistan. It is to equip students with the basic facts regarding the institutions of military and civil bureaucracy.

The interference of the institutions in political affairs was in the name of stability and development of the country during different civilian governments. The objectives of the course also include a detailed observation and awareness about the relationship of civil and military bureaucracy with the democratic governments, along with interaction with each other. Viewing these aspects, functions and powers, would be observed. The long periods of military regime led it to occupy a huge political space. It  not only exploited its constitutional role, but also more than that. The reforms introduced under military rule and its impact on society is also part of the course. Protecting a democracy from internal threats demand the creation of a powerful military, yet the creation of a powerful military can undermine the democracy that the military is designed to protect it. A few questions also to be addressed in this course, e.g. how do democracies manage the relationship between the civilians and the military? How a military intervention can be prevented in civilian rule. Overall, the course centers on mechanisms of military-civil bureaucracy’s control of political institutions.

Aims and Objectives:

  • The course contents would be enabled the students to understand these two institutions; military and civil bureaucracy, focusing their role and significance in state affairs.
  • It is to provide details about the role of military in politics of Pakistan. 
  • The course is to give knowledge about role of civil bureaucracy in politics of Pakistan.
  • The students will be informed about the development of Pakistan in context of all three institutions; military, civil bureaucracy and political government.
  • Interaction of all these institutions with each other is included to view different political phases of the governments of Pakistan. The students will be able to compare several dimensions of the interaction between governments and civil-military organizations.


Total Marks: 100

As per University Policy

Final Paper 50%  

Teaching Method:   1.Lectures    2. Discussion     3.Presentation    

Following is the details of course content and required material.

Course Contents

  • Study of Civil and Military Bureaucracy
  • Role of Bureaucracy in Developing Countries
  • Military in British India, Pattern of civil and military relationship in British India and its main functions: An Assessment
  • Independence of Pakistan 1947, Division of Armed forces, Nationalization of forces, Modernization / Reorganization of military
  • Origin and growth of civil and military bureaucracy in Pakistan in different Phases
  • Early Parliamentary Years (1947-1958), development of Military, Defence problems and Response from Military leadership, Military Assistant in time of Crisis 
  • Direct intervention of military in politics; Field Marshal Ayub era (1958-1969), Reforms and downfall
  • General Yahya Khan (1969-1971) and Legal Framework Order
  • Restoration of Democracy (1971-1977), 1973 constitution, Policy of Nationalization, Impact of administrative reforms of 1973 on civil military bureaucracy
  • Downfall of ZA Bhutto
  • General Zia ul Haq (1977-1988), Policy of Islamization, Afghan War and Pakistan’s Policy
  • Democratic Period of Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif (1988-99)
  • Musharraf Regime (1999-2008), Progress of economy, War on Terrorism.
  • Conduct of bureaucracy under civilian governments
  • Government of PPP and PMLN (2009-2018)
  • A revisit of civil military Bureaucracy and Politics of Pakistan

Recommended Books

  • Ahmed Ishtiaq. The Pakistani Military in Politics, Origin evaluation and consequences. New Delhi, Amaryllis Publishers, 2013. 
  • Jalal, Ayesha. The State of Martial Rule, the Origins of Pakistan's Political Economy of Defence. Lahore: Vanguard, 1991.
  • Kennedy, C. Bureaucracy in Pakistan, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Farwell, P. James. The Pakistan Cauldron, Conspiracy, Assassination and Instability. Washington D.C.: Potomac Books, 2011.
  • Talbot, Ian. Pakistan: A Modern History, Vanguard Books, Pvt, Ltd.1999.

Further Readings:

  • Ali, Tariq. Uprising in Pakistan. How to bring down a Dictatorship. London: Verso, 2018.
  • Burki, Javed & Craig Baxter. Pakistan under the Military. Lahore: Pakistan Book Corporation, 1991.
  • Dutt, Sanjay. Inside Pakistan 52 years Outlook. New Delhi: A.P.H Publishing Corporation, 2000.
  • Feldman, Herbert. From Crisis to Crisis Pakistan 1962-1969. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Feldman, Herbert. Revolution in Pakistan: A Study of Martial Law Administration. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
  • Khan, Jahan Dad. Pakistan Leadership Challenges. Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Khan, Muhammad Ayub, Friends not Masters: A Political Biography, Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1967.
  • Malik, I. H. State and Civil Society in Pakistan: Politics of Authority, Ideology and Ethnicity. London: Macmillan, 2000.
  • Pirzada, Din Ali. General Raheel Sharif, Solider and Statesman . Karachi : Royal Book Company , 2016.
  • Rajeshree Jetly ed. Pakistan in Regional and Global Politics . UK: Routledge , 2009.
  • Rizvi, H.A. Military, State and Society in Pakistan, Progressive Publishers, Lahore, 2003.
  • Rizvi, Hasan Askari. The Military and Politics in Pakistan 1947-1986. Lahore: Progressive Publishers, 1986.
  • Saeed, Shafqat, Civil military Relations in Pakistan, Lahore: Pak Book Corporation, 1997.
  • Salma Malik ed. Pakistan's Security Problems and Challenges in the next Decade. Islamabad: NUST, 2015.
  • Sayeed, Khalid bin, The Formative Phase, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, London, 1968.
  • Siddiqa, Ayesha, Military Incorporated, Karachi, Oxford 2007.
  • Speeches and Statements: Field Marshal M. Ayub Khan (Volume I,II,II,IV,V,VI,VII). 1959-1960.
  • Syed Nur Ahmad & Craig Baxter ed. From Martial Law to Martial Law, Politics of Punjab 1919-1958. Lahore: Vanguard, 2018. •
  • Syed, Anwar H. Issues of Bureaucratic Ethic: Two Essays, Progressive Publishers, Lahore, 1974.
  • Tarik Jan. Issues in Pakistani Politics. Institute of Policy Studies: Islamabad, 1991.
  • Ziring, Lawrence. The Ayub Era: Politics in Pakistan 1958-1969. US: Syracuse University Press, 1971.