Dairy Processing-II


The course is designed for students to learn the main advanced dairy technologies applied to milk processing. Developing a critical analysis concerning the innovative dairy technologies from a legal point of view. The course provides the student with useful tools for the evaluation of the effect of advanced dairy technologies on end products. The course also provides the student with useful tools for the evaluation of the effect of processing on the functionality and the technological properties of dairy products. This course enables the students to understand about production, microbiological aspects, physical, chemical defects and economic importance of fermented milk products. Students will be well aware of probiotics, prebiotics. They have knowledge about all unit operations involved in the preparation of fermented dairy products and packaging material used in the dairy products. It is also helpful to understand and development of industrially important fermented dairy food products.


Contents (Theory)


  1. Fermented milk products: production and economic importance.
  2. Microbiology of raw and processed milk.
  3. Starter cultures and incubation temperatures, schematic ways of fabrications and processing technologies used for yoghurt, butter, kefir, acidophilus milk and cheese production.
  4. Compositional and physico-chemical changes occur in milk during manufacturing of fermented dairy products. Rheological parameters,
  5. Microstructural properties and organoleptic scores of products.
  6. Chemistry of fermentation and flavor development.
  7. Physical defects, causes and remedies in fermented products.
  8. Microbiological hazards and pattern of spoilage.
  9. Factors affecting shelf life of milk and milk products.
  10. Utilization of by products for standardisation: native casein micelles, whey and butter milk.
  11. Packaging of fermented products.


Contents (Practical)


  1. Preparation of fermented milk products: yoghurt, cheese, butter and therapeutic milk.
  2. Compositional, physico-chemical, microbial.
  3. Microstructural, rheological and sensory evaluation of fermented milk product.
  4. Identification of defects in cheese and yoghurt and their solutions like whey separation.


Recommended texts


  1. Puniya, A. K. (2015).  Fermented milk and dairy products. (1st ed.) Florida: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.
  2. Montel, D., & Ramesh, C. R. (2016). Fermented foods, Part I: biochemistry and biotechnology. (1st ed.) London: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.


Suggested readings


  1. Osman, E., & Bozoglu, T. F. (2016). Food microbiology: principles into practice. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  2. Barbaros, O., & Gulsun, A. E. (2014). Dairy microbiology and biochemistry: recent developments. London: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.
  3. Ray, R. C., & Didier, M. (2017). Fermented foods, Part II: technological interventions. (1st ed.) London: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.


Course Material