Diversity of the plants is a major component of nature not only important for their value as a source of energy but they are also having wide potential to protect the environment in multifold directions. A plant provides better environment and platform to all the living beings in healthy development of the nature. There are different levels of classification to assign a group to specific plant species.

Course contents

  1. Comparative study of life form, structure, reproduction and economic significance
  2. Viruses (RNA and DNA types) with special reference to TMV
  3. Bacteria and Cyanobacteria (Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria) with specific reference to bio fertilizers, pathogenicity and industrial importance;
  4. Algae (Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Chara, Vaucheria, Pinnularia, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia)
  5. Fungi (Mucor, Penicillium, Phyllactinia, Ustilago, Puccinia, Agaricus), their implication on crop production and industrial applications.
  6. Lichens (Physcia)
  7. Bryophytes

                     i. Riccia                                      ii. Anthoceros                              iii.Funaria

8.  Pteridophytes.

i. Psilopsida (Psilotum)    ii. Lycopsida (Selaginella)    iii.Sphenopsida (Equisetum)

iv. Pteropsida (Marsilea)   

9. Gymnosperms

i. Cycasii. Pinusiii. Ephedra

10. Angiosperms

                            i. Monocot (Poaceae)     ii. Dicot (Solanaceae)    

Course aim

This course aims to develop understanding about core concept of occurrence, distribution, structure and life history of lower to higher plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms and angiosperms

Student learning outcomes/ learning objectives

By the end of this course students should be able to understand

Structure, multiplication and economic importance of virus, bacteria and cyanobacteria

Phylogeny and evolutionary concepts in different plant groups

The diversity of plants

Differentiate various groups of plants on morphological basis

Assessment methodology

This is a four-credit lecture course

Mid-term exams 30 marks

Final term exams 45 marks

Practical exam 15 marks

Sessional (Attendance, assignment & presentation) 10 Marks


  1. Lee, R. E. 1999. Phycology. Cambridge University Press, UK
  2. Prescott,L.M.,Harley,J.P.andKlein,A.D.2004.Microbiology,3rdEd.WM.C.Brown Publishers.
  3. Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W.and Blackwell,M.1996.IntroductoryMycology.4thEd. John Wiley and Sons Publishers.
  4. Agrios, G. N. 2004. Plant pathology.8th Ed. Academic Press London.
  5. Vashishta, B. R. 1991. Botany for degree students (all volumes). S. Chand and Company. Ltd. New Delhi.
  6. Andrew, H. N. 1961. Studies in Paleobotany.John Willey and Sons.
  7. Ingrouille, M. 1992. DiversityandEvolutionofLandPlants.Chapman& Hall.
  8. Mauseth, J. D. 2003. Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology 3rd Ed., Jones and Bartlett Pub. UK
  9. Marti. J. &Ingrouille.  2006. Plant diversity and Evolution. CUP.
  10. Taylor, T. N. & Taylor, E. D.  2000. Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants. Prentice Hall. N. Y.

Hussain, F. 2012. A Text Book of Botany and Biodiversity.Pak Book Empire

Course Material