Wood Science is applied to the field of Wood Technology that is based on a scientific investigation as well as experimental. Wood technology in a broad sense combines the disciplines of wood anatomy, biology, chemistry, physics, and mechanical technology. Within the Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wood Science is focused on the raw material wood, its growth and function, natural properties and structure, and the way these characteristics are influenced by the environmental conditions within forests. This subject covers the entire field of wood material science, wood components, and wood based products. Subjects are wood biology and wood quality, wood physics and physical technologies, wood chemistry, and chemical technologies. Latest advances in areas such as cell wall and wood formation; structural and chemical composition of wood and wood composites and their property relations; physical, mechanical, and chemical characterization and relevant methodological developments, and microbiological degradation of wood and wood-based products are reported. Topics related to wood technology include machining, gluing, and finishing, composite technology, wood modification, wood mechanics, creep and rheology, and the conversion of wood into pulp and biorefinery products.

  • Spans the entire field of wood and pulp
  • Coverage includes the composition of wood, wood products technology, and pulp processing
  • 90% of authors who answered a survey reported that they would definitely publish or probably publish in the journal again

The intended outcome of the Course

Graduates will demonstrate a firm understanding of wood formation, wood identification, physical properties, mechanical properties, chemical characteristics and properties, wood degradation and deterioration, and composite materials.

Graduates will be able to compare and contrast a variety of complex contemporary issues of wood use, including demand, use, and impact of use on society and the environment; applications of wood and wood-based materials; choosing and specifying appropriate wood-based products; policy, regulation, environmental and other societal issues; professional ethics; and health, safety, and security issues.

Course contents


  1. Structure of wood: wood definition, process of wood formation, anatomical properties, anisotropic structure of softwoods and hardwoods. Description of wood elements in three dimensions. Definition of related terms helpful in identification of Pakistani timbers.
  2. Defects in wood: definition, kinds and classification of natural defects, cause of development of natural and drying defects during seasoning process.
  3. Wood properties: definition of physical and mechanical properties, colour, luster, odour and taste, density wood- moisture relationship, shrinkage and swelling, electrical and thermal conductivities, calorific value, static bending, compression, tension, hardness, shear, impact bending, cleavage, nail/screw holding power. Applications of mechanical properties for various purposes, timber connectors and their types.
  4. Wood seasoning: definition, preliminary techniques, timber storage, orthodoxal / non-orthodoxal methods of wood drying, different stacking methods, moisture content and it’s determination methods, recent developments in lumber drying, measurement and control of various drying defects and their control, economics of different wood seasoning methods.
  5. Wood preservation: definition, natural durability of wood, agencies of wood deterioration, types of preservatives absorption and retention of preservatives, control of biological agencies by preservative treatment, fire retardants, their types and application methods.
  6. Sawmilling and wood working: various types of sawing machines operation and maintenance, design and layout of  portable sawmills, common hand tools and wood working machines, their uses and maintenance, design and layout of modern wood-workshop, types of wood work, joints and their applications in wood work, machining properties of Pakistani timbers.
  7. Pulp and paper: characteristics and classification of important fibrous raw materials, essential requirement of raw materials for pulp and paper manufacture, distribution and supply of raw material in Pakistan, chemistry and technology of various pulping and bleaching processes, consumption of paper and it’s products in Pakistan, future of paper industry in the country, current supply and demand of paper including import and export, brief description of paper manufacture.
  8. Composite wood products: Basic theory of adhesion and cohesion as influenced by physical factors, wood adhesives; their formulation, characteristics and uses, impregnation of wood with resin forming chemicals, properties of impregnated wood, production, properties and uses of impregnated timbers, laminboard, chipboard, fiberboard, veneer cutting and peeling properties of local timbers, principles involved in the manufacture of plywood, advantages of plywood over solid wood construction.
  9. Uses of woods: suitability of timbers for different uses, specialized, constructional, structural and decorative uses of Pakistani timbers.
  10. Utilization of wood waste and integration of forest industries: what is waste? Types of wood waste, wood waste and it’s’ utilization, what is an industry? Principles of integration of forest industries, economic and technical advantages.


  1. Studying gross features of wood.
  2. Observation of wood elements in three dimensions under microscope.
  3. Determination of physical properties.
  4. Testing of timbers for different mechanical properties.
  5. Demonstration of stacking techniques and measurement of seasoning defects.
  6. Demonstration of various methods of wood preservation.
  7. Manufacturing, testing and evaluation of plywood, particleboard, MDF etc.
  8. Measurement of round and sawn timber.
  9. Calculation of recovery of converted timber.


1- A handbook of Forest utilization By T., Mehta, Himachal Pradesh Forest Service, International Book Distributor. Bookseller and publisher 9/3 Rajpur Road (Ist floor), Dehra Dun-248001.

2- Basics of forestry and allied sciences Vol I and Vol II by Masood A. A., Quraishi

3- Comprehensive Forestry By S. B., Raza

4- Forest products and wood sciences an introduction, Sixth edition, Rubin Shmulsky and P. David Jones.

5- Wood Technology M. B. Shrivastava

Assessment Criteria

Mid Exam 30 Marks Mcqs

Sessional Marks 20 (10 marks Participation, 10 Marks presentation)

Final Exam 50 Mark (25 Mcqs and 25 Viva)

    Meeting/class time According to timetable 

S. No            Day              Time

1                  Monday         8:50 Am to 10:30 am

2.                 Wednesday   12:10 Pm to 1:00 Pm

3                  Thursday       11:20 Am to 12:10 Pm

Course Material