An introductory course for graduate-level students to develop a basic understanding of the importance of forestry and forest resources of Pakistan. The course also encompasses the introduction of Watershed and Watershed Management in the context of topographic variations of Pakistan from sea level to the highest peaks including glaciers. The course concludes with the relationship between forests and watersheds for sustainable natural resource management in the country.

Forest and Watershed management must heavily emphasize the understanding of forest resources in relation to the watershed with practical knowledge of forest survey and its analysis and interpretation in a valid manner. The objectives of studying this course are:

  1. To acquaint the students with basic knowledge of Forestry.
  2.  Developing an understanding of principles used in Watershed management.
  3. To impart knowledge about forest resources in Pakistan.
  4. To teach skills to the students about practical Forest and Watershed management in Pakistan

Graduate-level students will understand the basic concepts of forests and watershed management to build on in the future as and when required


  1. Introduction to Forest and forestry
  2. Importance, problems and constraints of these natural resources of Pakistan.
  3. Forest resources of Pakistan (description, composition, distribution and status) in different ecological zones.
  4. Sustainable forest management.
  5. Forestry practices (Agroforestry, social forestry etc.).
  6. Introduction and Principles of Watershed Management.
  7. Hydrological cycle.
  8. Watershed regions of various streams/rivers of Pakistan, their area, distribution, land use patterns, past history, climatic, physiographic, ecological and socio-economic features.
  9. Importance, Management problems and potentials of various watersheds


  1. Identification of important forest tree species
  2. Visits to various forest types and watershed areas.
  3. Watershed measurements (instruments, area, drainage, flow etc.).

Recommended Books

  1. Raeder- Roitsch, J.E., Watershed Management (Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, 1968).
  2. Sheikh, M.I., Forests and Forestry in Pakistan (A-One Publishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, 1999).

Suggested Books

  1. Champion, H.G. et al., Manual of Silviculture for Pakistan (Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, 1967).
  1. Quraishi, M. A. A., Basics of Forestry and Allied Sciences (A-One Publishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, 1999).

Assessment Criteria:

Mid Term Exam: 30

Sessional: 20 (Assignment + Presentation)

Final Exam: 50

Course Material