This course focuses on providing an understanding of the components, dynamics, and factors that lead to change in the climate. We will explore the global heat budget and transfer of energy in the atmosphere through the water cycle and atmospheric winds.  In this course, we will also study precipitation, composition, structure atmospheric disturbance, and climate types according to the classification of Koppen, Miller, and Thornthwaite. This course investigates climate modeling, parameterization weather modification, and applied climatology with reference to Pakistan. This course is designed for the study of climatic elements, variations in weather and climate both spatially and temporarily. The major climatic regions of the world and human impact on climate are also treated as an important topics of the study.


At the conclusion of the course the successful student will be able to:

  1. Identify the different climatic zones.
  2. To explain the role of the balance between solar and terrestrial radiation in the formation of weather patterns.
  3. Explain the factors determining climate and its change.
  4. Be able to explain the forces controlling air motion and the resultant types of wind.
  5. Be able to describe and explain natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change at multiple scales.

Text Books:

  1. Miller, A. (2001). Climatology. New York: Methuen.
  2. Stringer, E. T. 1989). Foundation of Climatology. New Delhi. India: Surjeet Publishers.
  3. Thompson, R. (1997). Applied Climatology: Principles and Practice. Canada: Routledge.

Course Start Date: October 12, 2020

Course End Date:   

Class Timing

Monday            09:00 AM- 10:00 AM

Tuesday           09:00 AM- 10:00 AM

Wednesday      09:00 AM- 10:00 AM

Assessment Criteria: Total Marks 100

Sessional: 20 [Assignments (05) Presentations (05) Quiz (05) Attendance (05)]

Mid Term: 30

Final exam: 50

Course Material