Course Code: ZOL-502

Credit Hours: 4(3+1)

The course aims to

  1. Provide in-depth knowledge about the polymerized organic compounds of life.
  2. Develop an understanding about the dynamism life as it proceeds with inter-conversion of the chemicals from feeding to the liberation of energy for work.
  3. Understand that inter-conversion is performed by various tools called as enzymes.
  4. Enable students to know how organisms harvest of energy for growth, duplication etc.

Books Recommended

  1. Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M. 2012. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. McMillan worth Publishers, New York.
  2. Berg, J. M., Tymoczko,J. L.,Lubert Stryer. 2010. Biochemistry. 7TH Ed.
  3. Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S. L., Paul. M., Baltimore D.,Darnell, J. 2012. Molecular Cell Biology.
  4. McKee, T., McKee, J.R. 2003.Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Life. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill.
  5. Wilson, K., Walker, J. 1994.Practical Biochemistry: Principles and Techniques, 4th Ed., Cambridge University Press.



Books with page no


Amino acids, peptides and proteins: standard amino acids, their structure and classification; acid/base properties of amino acids and their titration curves;

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry; 101-110


Peptides, their ionic behavior and amino acid composition, cytochrome c

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Proteins: level of structural organization, example of structural and functional proteins.




Enzymes: Introduction; important characteristics of enzymes; immobilized enzymes; how enzymes work; example of enzymatic reaction; enzyme kinetics, enzyme rate of reaction and substrate concentration, how pH and temperature effect on enzyme activity.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Carbohydrates: Classification, types, important characteristics and structure of carbohydrates

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Cyclic structure of monosaccharides; cyanohydrin formation; disaccharides their types structure and function

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Polysaccharides, storage and structural types; structure and major functions of polysaccharides.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Lipids: fatty acids, their types and major characteristics;

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Storage lipids, acylglycerols; waxes; structural lipids in membranes; major functions of lipids; Lipoproteins, their types and major functions.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Vitamins and cofactors: occurrence, structure and biochemical function of vitamins B complex group.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



Metabolism: detailed description of glycolysis and catabolism of other hexoses; regulation and bioenergetics of glycolysis. Anabolic role of glycolysis; fate of pyruvate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, lactate, acetyl CoA and ethanol formation

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Alcoholic fermentation; gluconeogenesis, its regulation and significance in the tissues; feeder pathways in glycolysis; utilization of other carbohydrates in glycolysis phosphorolysis and starch; regulation of glycogen metabolism.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Citric acid (TCA) cycle: conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, pyruvate dehydrogenase, a multi-enzyme complex; detailed description of citric acid cycle; bioenergetics and conservation of energy produced in the cycle. Anabolic or biosynthetic role of citric acid cycle intermediates;

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Replenishing or anaplerotic reactions and their role; regulation of citric acid cycle; Electron transport and its components, oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmotic theory, ATP synthesis, uncouple electron transport and heat generation.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Lipid metabolism: oxidation of fatty acids; digestion, mobilization and transport of fats; biosynthesis of triacylglycerol; utilization of triacylglycerol; activation of fatty acids and their transportation to mitochondria; beta-oxidation; bioenergetics of beta-oxidation

Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids; omega oxidation pathway; biosynthesis of saturated fatty acid, supply of raw material for palmitic acid synthesis; fatty acid synthetase (FAS) multienzyme complex; Ketone bodies their biosynthesis, utilization and role in the tissues; cholesterol metabolism: Steroid hormones.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


Nitrogen metabolism: metabolic fate of amino acids; catabolism of amino acids; deamination and transamination; nitrogen excretion and urea cycle; regulation of urea cycle.


Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

Time table

Wednesday 11-12am
Thursday 10-12am