The course is designed to provide students with:

  • Taxonomic characteristics and classification of each phylum
  • Concepts of evolutionary relationship of animal kingdom
  • Knowledge about animal kingdom, emphasizing their phylogenetic relationships and simple to complex mode of animal life

Course Contents

Introduction: Architectural pattern of an animal, taxonomy and phylogeny, major subdivisions of animal kingdom with evolutionary perspective.                

Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa; life within a single plasma membrane; symbiotic life-styles. Protozoan taxonomy: (up to phyla, subphyla and super classes, wherever applicable). Pseudopodia and amoeboid locomotion; cilia and other pellicular structures; nutrition; genetic control and reproduction; symbiotic ciliates; further phylogenetic considerations.

Multicellular and Tissue Levels of Organization: origins of multicellularity; animal origins. Phylum porifera: cell types, body wall, and skeletons; water currents and body forms; maintenance functions; reproduction. Phylum Cnidaria (coelenterata) the body wall andnematocysts; alternation of generations; maintenance functions; reproduction and classification up to class. Phylum Ctenophora; further phylogenetic considerations.

Triploblastics and Acoelomate Body Plan: Phylum Platyhelminthes: classification up to class; the free-living flatworms and the tapeworms; Phylum Nemertea; Phylum Gastrotricha; further phylogenetic considerations.

Pseudocoelomate Body Plan: Aschelminths: general characteristics; classification up to phyla with external features; feeding and the digestive system; other organ systems; reproduction and development of Phylum Rotifera and Phylum Nematoda; Phylum Kinorhyncha. Some important nematode parasites of humans; further phylogenetic considerations.

Molluscan Success: relationships to other animals; origin of the coelom; molluscan characteristics; classification up to class. The characteristics of shell and associated structures, feeding, digestion, gas exchange, locomotion, reproduction and development, other maintenance functions and diversity in gastropods, bivalves and cephalopods; further phylogenetic considerations.

Annelida: The Metameric Body Form: relationship to other animals, metamerism and tagmatization; External structure and locomotion, feeding and the digestive system, gas exchange and circulation, nervous and sensory functions, excretion, regeneration, reproduction and development in different classes; further phylogenetic considerations.

Arthropods: Blueprint for Success: classification and relationships to other animals; metamerism and tagmatization; the exoskeleton; metamorphosis; classification up to class; further phylogenetic considerations; phylogeny and adaptive diversification.

Echinoderms: relationships to other animals; echinoderm characteristics; classification up to class. Maintenance functions, regeneration, reproduction, and development; further phylogenetic considerations.

Lesser Invertebrates: The lophophorates, entoprocts, cycliophores, and chaetognaths


  1. Museum study of representative Phyla, Permanent slide preparations
  2. Study of Euglena, Amoeba, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, Trypanosoma,
  3. Paramecium as representative of animal like protists. (Prepared slides).
  4. Study of sponges and their various body forms.
  5. Study of principal representative classes of Phylum Cnidaria.
  6. Study of principal representative classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes.
  7. Study of representative of Phylum Rotifera, Phylum Nematoda.
  8. Study of principal representative classes of Phylum Mollusca.
  9. Study of principal representative classes of Phylum Annelida.
  10. Study of principal representative classes of groups of Phylum Arthropoda.
  11. Brief notes on medical/economic importance of the following:
  12. Plasmodium,Entamoeba histolitica, Leishmania, Liverfluke, Tapeworm, Earthworm. 
  13. Silkworm, Citrus butterfly.

Books Recommended

  1. Hickman, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Larson, A. 2011. Integrated Principles of Zoology, 15th Ed. (International). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  2. Miller, S.A., Harley, J.B. 2011. Zoology, 8th Ed. (International), Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  3. Pechenik, J.A. 2010. Biology of Invertebrates, 4th Ed. (International), Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  4. Campbell, N.A. 2002. Biology, 6th Ed. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.
  5. Miller, S.A., 2002. General Zoology Laboratory Manual. 5th Ed. (International). Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  6. Hickman, C.P., Kats, H.L. 2000. Laboratory Studies in Integrated Principles of Zoology. Singapore: McGraw Hill.
  7. Miller, S.A., Harley, J.B. 2016. Zoology, 10th Ed. (International), Singapore: McGraw Hill.

Assessment Criteria

  • Sessional: 15% (Presentations: 10%, Partcipation: 5%)
  • Practical: 25% 
  • Midterm exam/ Term paper: 15%
  • Final exam: 45%

Time Table

B.s chemistry 2nd semester  (R) Paper: Animal Diversity: Invertebrates







Thursday (Practical)


B.s chemistry 2nd semester  (S.S) Paper: Animal Diversity: Invertebrates







Friday (Practical)


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Course Material