This is an introductory course designed to introduce the concept and significance of soil science for agriculture students at undergraduate level. It provides information to the students about chemistry of soil especially soil colloids and their environmental significance. This course also delivers knowledge to the students how to use sagaciously essential elements for better crop growth and production. This course too gives information to the students for judicious use of problematic soils for crop growth. This subject also improves the awareness of the students about impact of agricultural and industrial wastes on our environment. In addition, this introductory course also improves the skills of the students how to calculate percent nutrients in available fertilizer and their chemical analysis about their percent grade.

Actually it is a basic course of soil science for agriculture student, after this, student will be able to understand the role soil colloids in soil fertility.  Acquisition of high level knowhow about significance of organic matter in soil, its sources and composition. How organic matter play a role for enhancing availability of macro and micro nutrients from soil environment. This subject also clear the concept of students about soil pH and its significance regarding nutrients availability from soil to plant. Agriculture students will be able to identify the problematic the soil and decide amendment for soil reclamation. Acquisition of specific and technical understanding about the application of different fertilizers for soil and methods of different fertilizers analysis. Understanding soil biological status for land evaluation and soil conservation. The students will plan work directly with soils, make land use and management decisions, or to be involved in projects requiring practical application of soil science principles. THEORY: 1. Soil colloids and clays: description and environmental significance, 2. Sources of charges on soil colloids, 3. Cation and anion exchange properties of soil and their significance; basic cation saturation percentage, 4. Soil pH and its importance, 5. Buffering of soil, 6. Soil organic matter: sources, composition and significance, 7. Elements essential for plant growth: macro and micro nutrients, organic and inorganic fertilizers, 8. Salt-affected and waterlogged soils: types, reclamation and management, 9. Soil erosion: causes and remedies: soil and water conservation, 10. Environmental impact of agricultural and industrial wastes. PRACTICAL: 1. Fertilizers: Identification, composition and calculation of nutrient percentage, 2. Fertilizer analysis for N, P and K, 3. Soil analysis for EC and pH, 4. Determination of soil organic matter. BOOKS RECOMMENDED. 1. Bashir, E. and R. Bantel. 2001. Soil Science. National Book Foundation, Islamabad, 2. Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2007. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Ed. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 3. Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2009. Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils. 3rd Ed. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 4. Hillel, D. 2008. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Elsevier Inc., Burlington, MA, USA, 5. Singer, M.J. and D.N. Munns. 2002. Soils- An Introduction. 5th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Course Material