Course Code:              CE-407

Credit Hour (Theory):  02



To develop abilities of students for applying state of the art knowledge related to irrigation and drainage engineering with particular reference to Pakistani environment.

Course Outlines: 

Water Resources: Planning and development of water resources projects. Domestic, Industrial, Agricultural and other water usages, Water resources in Pakistan.

Irrigation: Definition and types of irrigation. Merits and demerits of irrigation, Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS).

Canal Irrigation: Elementary concept about canal head works, selection of their site and layout, weirs and barrages, various components and functions. Measures adopted to control silt entry into canals, silt ejectors and excluders. Design of weirs on permeable foundations, sheet piles and cut off walls. Design of irrigation channels, Kennedy’s and Lacey’s Theories. Rational methods for design of irrigation channels. Comparison of various methods. Computer Aided design of irrigation channels.

Barrages and Head works: Canal head regulators, falls, flumes, canal outlets. Cross drainage works: types and functions. Canal lining: advantages and types. Maintenance of irrigation canals. Monitoring of flows-telemetry system.

Irrigated Agriculture: Soil-water-plant relationship. Water requirements of crops, duty of irrigation water. Delta of crops, consumptive use, estimation of consumptive use, methods used for assessment of irrigation water. Irrigation methods and practices. Irrigation scheduling. Management of irrigation systems, participatory irrigation management.

Water logging and salinity: Causes and effects of water logging, reclamation of water logged soils. Drains and tube wells. Causes and effects of salinity and alkalinity of lands in Pakistan. Reclamation methods. Drainage network in irrigated areas.

Drainage: Definition, Land reclamation, Surface Drainage, Subsurface Drainage, Estimation of discharge capacity of Cross-drainage structures, Disposal of drainage effluents.

Recommended Books:

1. Linslay, R.K. and Joseph, B.F. Water Resources Engineering, McGraw Hill.

2. Siddiqui, Iqtidar H., Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Oxford University Press


Evaluation Criteria:

1. Mid Exam                                                        20 Marks

2. Sessional (Quiz, Assignment, Attendance)     30 Marks

3. Final Exam                                                       50 Marks


Course Material