1. Preface

•Shura is one of the most important institution of Islam and a source of expression of Public

opinion where representatives of Islam discuss upon state’s administrative issues. In shape

of shura system Islamic state provided a method to hold consultation among Muslim in

order to resolve government administrative affairs. Parliament is form of shura system and

it has been derived from Islamic shura system

2. Meaning of Shura

•Shura is an Arabic word which means “To Consult” or “To ask for advice”

3. Definition of Shura

•Shura is a body of representatives of Muslim community who gets together for consultation

with each other in order to reach upon a decision for resolution of administrative issues

4. Importance of Shura in Islamic State

Following verse of the Holy Quran shows the importance of Shura System

1. According to Quran

“And consult with them upon the conduct of affair”

2. According to Ahadith

“Hazrat Abu Hurrairah (R.A) said that, the practice of Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) I have not

seen anybody who could excel (Barhay) the prophet (P.B.U.H) in consultation from


Hazrat Ayesha (R.A) says:

“I have not seen a person consulting the people to more than Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H)”

5. Types of Shura

During the period of Caliph Hazrat Umar (R.A) there were two types of Shura

1. Shura Aam

•It was consisted on the people from the general public or upon the common people of

the Muslim community

2. Shura Khas

•It was consisted on well-known companions or well-known people of Muslim


6. Person who may be elected as Shura members

Following persons can be elected as members of Majlis-e-Shura

1) Person who is citizen of the state and

2) Person should be Muslim

3) Whose sincerity ,ability and loyalty is high in the eyes of Public

4) Who participated in the major decisions of the state

5) Who has enough knowledge of Islamic teachings

6) Who character is clean and free from sins and not violates Islamic injunctions

Quran says:

“The most honored of you in the sight of God is the most pious among you”

7. Duty of Majlis e Shura

•Duty of the members of Shura is to give their best opinions according to their wisdom as

Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) said that,

Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) says

“The man who gives advice to his brother by knowing well that is not right; he does

deceive his trust”

8. Characteristics (Sifaat) of Shura

Following are the important characteristics of Shura system

1. Will of God

•Shura is subject to the Will of God and without the will or against ALLAH’s will no

decision is taken

2. Freedom of opinion

•Freedom of opinion is an integral part of Shura because everybody is free to express his

opinion. Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) always left the companions to speak freely to express

their opinions on matter of concerns

3. Rule of Majority opinion

•Minority should follow the opinion of Majority sometimes companions differed with

one another but The Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) also followed the majority opinion

4. Principle of vicegerency (khalifat)

•In shura, the people are only representatives of ALLAH. They have no power to

supersede any provision of the sharia

5. Binding authority

•Once shura is reached on a decision. It should be enforced because it has binding


Quran says:

“Once you determine, and then trust in ALLAH”

9. Important Shura’s in Islam

Following are the most important shura’s in Islamic history

1. Shura e Ahad

•At occasion of Ahad, the Holy Prophet’s (P.B.U.H) opinion that they should fight the

enemy by remaining inside of the city but majority wanted to battle outside the city ,

and the opinion of the majority honored

2. Shura e Badr

•At the occasion of Badr, this shura was held by Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H) to finalize that

they should meet at Badr or Not. The Companions unanimously agreed to meet the

enemy at Badr

3. Nomination of Hazrat Umar (R.A)

•Hazrat Abu Bakar Siddique (R.A) proposed the name of Hazrat Umar (R.A) as caliph after

him. All the members of shura agreed and approval was given to it

10. Comparison of Shura with Parliament

•The concept of Shura presented by Islam is much earlier than the present concept of

parliament. Islam gave the concept of parliament system nearly one thousand year earlier

than the western concept that’s why shura is superior to parliament system

1. As to will

•In shura will of ALLAH is supreme

•In parliament public opinion is supreme

2. As to religion

•In shura religion of the state is Islam

•In western parliament form of govt, religion is not so important

3. As to source of Law

•In shura, sources are Quran and Sunnah

•In western parliament form of govt, sources of law are man made laws

4. Dual personality

•In shura member are responsible and answerable to the people and ALLAH

•In parliament system, the members are answerable only to the people

5. Freedom of opinion

•In shura , every member is free to gave his opinion

•In Parliament system , every member is not free to gave his opinion as they are elected

on party basis

6. Jurisdiction

•In shura system the jurisdiction covers the whole world

•In parliament system , jurisdiction covers the geographical boundaries

11. Preclude

•Islamic shura system is model for whole world. Shura develops the Islamic concepts and

theories. Shura makes decisions on legal, political matter in light of social norms. In Pakistan

constitution of 1973, the parliament has been given the name of Majlis-e-Shura by virtue of

Aritcle 50