Determination of lease...........Section 111

Modes of Determination of lease

critical analysis

case laws


111. Determination of lease:. A lease of immovable property determines:-

(a) by efflux of the time limited thereby;

(b) where such time is limited conditionally on the happening of some event-by the happening of such event;

(c) where the interest of the lessor in the property terminates on, or his power to dispose of the same extends only to, the happening of any event-by the happening of such event;

(d) in case the interests of the lessee and the lessor in the whole of the property become vested at the same time in one person in the same right;

(e) by express surrender; that is to say, in case the lessee yields up his interest under the lease, to the lessor by mutual agreement between them;

(f) by implied surrender;

(g) by forfeiture; that is to say, (1) in case the lessee breaks an express condition which provides that on breach thereof the lessor may re-enter; or (2) in case the lessee renounces his character as such by setting up a title in a third person or by claiming title in himself; [or (3) the lessee is adjudicated an insolvent and the lease provides that the lessor may re-enter on the happening of such event]; and in [any of these cases] the lessor or his transferee [gives notice in writing to the lessee of] his intention to determine the lease; and

(h) on the expiration of a notice to determine the. lease, or to quit, or of intention to quit, the property leased, duly given by one party to the other. A lessee accepts from his lessor a new lease of the property leased, to take effect during the continuance of the existing lease. This is an implied surrender of the former lease, and such lease determines thereupon.

112. Waiver of forfeiture. A forfeiture under section 111, clause (g), is waived by acceptance of rent which has become due since the forfeiture, or by distress for such rent, or by any other act on -the part of the lessor showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting: Provided that the lessor is aware that the forfeiture has been incurred: Provided also that, where rent is accepted after the institution of a suit to eject the lessee on the ground of forfeiture, such acceptance is not a waiver. 113. Waiver of notice to quit. A notice given under section 111, clause (h), is waived, with the express or implied consent of the person to whom it is given, by any act on the part of the person giving it showing an intention to treat the lease as subsisting. Illustrations (a) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice expires. B tenders, and A accepts, rent which has become due in respect of the property since the expiration of the notice. The notice is waived. (b) A, the lessor, gives B, the lessee, notice to quit the property leased. The notice expires and B remains in possession. A gives to B as lessee a second notice to quit. The first notice is waived. 114. Relief against forfeiture for non-payment of rent. Where a lease of immovable property has determined by forfeiture for nonpayment of rent, and the lessor sues to eject the lessee, if, at the hearing of the suit, the lessee pays or tenders the lessor the rent in arrear, together with interest thereon his full costs of the suit, or gives such security as the Court thinks sufficient for making such payment within fifteen days, the Court may, in lieu of making a decree for ejectment pass an order relieving the lessee against the forfeiture; and thereupon the lessee shall hold the property leased as if the forfeiture had not occurred.

114-A. Relief against forfeiture in certain other cases. Where a lease of immovable property has determined by forfeiture for a breach of an express condition which provides that on breach thereof the lessor may re-enter, no suit for ejectment shall lie unless and until the lessor has served on the lessee a notice in writing:- (a) specifying the particular breach complained of; and (b) if the breach is capable of remedy, requiring the lessee to remedy the breach; and (he lessee fails, within a reasonable time from the date of the service of the notice, to remedy the breach, if it is capable of remedy. Nothing in this section shall apply to an express condition against the assigning, underletting, parting with the possession, or disposing, of the property leased, or to an express condition relating to forfeiture in case of non-payment of rent. 115. Effect of surrender and forfeiture on under-leases. The surrender, express or implied, of a lease of immovable property does not prejudice an under lease of the property or any part thereof previously granted by the lessee, on terms and conditions substantially the same (except as regards the amount of rent) as those of the original lease; but unless the surrender is made for the purpose of obtaining a new lease, the rent payable by, and the contracts binding on, the under-lessee shall be respectively payable to and enforceable by the lessor. The forfeiture of such a lease annuls all such under-leases except where such forfeiture has been procured by the lessor in fraud of the under-lessees, or relief against the forfeiture is granted under section 114. 116 Effect of holding over. If a lessee or under-lessee of property remains in possession thereof after the determination of the lease granted to the lessee, and the lessor or his legal representative accepts rent from the lessee or under-lessee, or otherwise assents to his continuing in possession, the lease is, in the absence of an agreement to the contrary, renewed from year to year, or from month to month, according to the purpose for which the property is leased, as specified in section 106. Illustrations (a) A lets a house to B for five years. B underlets the house to C at a monthly rent of Rs. 100. The five years expire, but C continues in possession of the house and pays the rent to A. Cs lease is renewed from month to month. (b) A lets a farm to B for the life of C. C dies, but B continue in possession with A's assent. B's lease is renewed from year to year.

117. Exemption of leases for agricultural purposes. None of the provisions of this Chapter apply to leases for agricultural purposes, except in so far as the [Provincial Government] may, by Notification published in the [official Gazette], declare all or any of such provisions to be so applicable [in the case of all or any of such leases], together with or subject to, those of the local law, if any, for the time being in force; Such notification shall not take effect until the expiry of six months from the date of its publication. .