• Road Standards: NHA, AASHTO and Road Note   31, recommendations for the design of roads regarding: Design parameters: Cross-sectional  elements  of  roads such  as  lane  widths,  shoulder widths, median widths, edge  clearance, ROW  (right of  way) requirements, sight distances. Road layout parameters Road camber gradient and super-elevation, Vertical and horizontal alignment of road
  • Geometric Design: Geometric aspects of highways, design of transportation facilities based on operational capacity, site constraints and safety considerations. Layout of circular transition and vertical curves.  Traffic surveys for  design   and improvement of roads
  • Intersections: Factors influencing the layout of junctions and design of islands, provision of junctions on single carriageway and dual carriageway sites. Parking spaces, underpasses,       motorways, flyovers, motorway intersections. Widening of roads on curves.
  • Road Drainage and Protection: Surface and sub-surface road drainage, camber and grade for highways surface drainage and proper sub-grade for  sub-surface drainage, drainage structures of    the required capacity for cross drainage
  • Airports: Factors affecting site selection and layout of airport with respect to geographical, aeronautical, socio-political and economic conditions. Wheel loads of different aircrafts. Introduction to pavements and typical cross- sections. Introduction to layout of airport buildings
  • Railways: Track structure, railway alignment & grades, cross-section of railway tracks & their laying, points, crossing and level crossing. Modern method of laying railway tracks. Railway organization in Pakistan

Recommended Books:

  1. C. H. Oglesby, Russell G. Hicks, “Highway Engineering”, ISBN: 047102936X. John Willey & Sons. January 1982 (Latest Edition)
  2. AASHTO Staff, “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways & Streets”, ISBN: 1560510013. January 1990 (Latest Edition)
  3. Baker, “Hand Books of Highway Engineering” (Latest Edition)
  4. S. K. Sharma, “Railways, Bridges and Tunnels” (Latest Edition)