Biological Techniques (Zol-602)

Credit Hours3(2+1)


The course aims to develop scientific technical expertise, culture and work habits. Familiarize with the basic tools and techniques of scientific study with emphasis on biological sciences and develop basic understanding of the equipments usage.

Learning Outcomes

  1. Students will gain knowledge about basic research methodologies.
  2. They gain skills about usage of various equipments being used in biological sciences.

Course Contents

  1.    Microscopy: Principles of light microscopy. Magnification, Resolution, Contrast. Types of microscopy, Bright field (Compound Microscope), Scanning microscopy, Eyepiece micrometers, Camera Lucida Phase Contrast Dark field Interference microscope, Electron microscope (Observation of wet mounts of human cheek cells employing bright and dark field microscopy ).
  2.    Micrometery and Morphometry: Use of stage and ocular micrometer. Calibration of ocular micrometer. Size measurement (length, width, diameter), (Measurement of cell size: bacterial and eukaryotic ).
  3. Standard system for weight, length, volume: Calculations and related conversions of each:-  Metric system- length; surface; weight- Square measures- Cubic measures (volumetric)- Circular or angular measure         - Concentrations- percent volume; ppt; ppm - Chemical molarity, normality -Temperature- Celsius, centigrade, Fahrenheit. Preparation of stock solutions of  various strengths
  4. Specimen preparation for optical microscopy: Microtomy: Fixation, embedding, Section cutting (transverse, longitudinal section, mounting and staining. Sections in paraffin and cryosections.
  5. Extraction techniques: Centrifugation, Ultracentrifugation, cellfractionation, filtration, Distillation, Use of Soxhalet and Rotary evaporator for extraction.
  6. Separation Techniques: Chromatography: Principle, applications, types,thin layer, column, gas, ion exchange chromatography. Electrophoresis: Principle, applications, types.
  7. Spectrophotometery: Principle, applications, types, visible spectrum, UVspectrum, atomic absorption.
  8. Basic principles of Sampling and Preservation: Sampling soilorganisms, Invertebrates, Aquatic animals, Mammals, Estimation of population size, Preservation of dry and wet specimens. Preservation techniques – Taxidermy - Rearing techniques, Laboratory and field.


  1.  Recording of microscopic obervations with the help of camera lucida
  2.  Liquid handling: proper use of pipettes and micropittes
  3.  Histological preparations: skeletal muscle, intestine liver and testes
  4.  Handling of centrifuge machines
  5.  Thin layer chromatography of amino acids
  6. Spectrophotometric estimation of glucose
  7. Spectrophotometric estimation of total proteins
  8. Preservation of representative animals of various phyla
  9. Electrophoretic separation of proteins
  10. Electrophoretic separation of DNA

Recommended Texts

  1. Cheesbrough, M. (2005). District laboratory practice in tropical countries (Part I) (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Cheesbrough, M. (2009). District laboratory practice in tropical countries (Part II). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Suggested Readings

  1. Gallagher, S. R., & Wiley E. A. (2008). Current protocols essential laboratory Techniques. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
  2.  Jones, A., Reed, R., & Weyers, J. (1994). Practical skills in biology. Singapore: Longman Ltd


monday: 3-4


wednesday: 2-4

assesment :

  1. Assignment & presentation
  2. . Mid term exam
  3. . Final exams
  4. .Practicals
  5. .Practical Exam

Course Material