Course Tittle: WILDLIFE

Course Code: ZOOL-6205

Credit Hours: 3 (3+0)

Regional background information about zoogeographic influences upon animal distribution across the main ecological zones of Pakistan is the core area of this subject. The course outlines introduction, current and past status, distribution of animals, theories, practices, and issues of wildlife and its management in Pakistan. The mountainous areas embracing the Himalayan, Karakorum and Hindukush Ranges are rich in fauna and flora, compared to other parts of the country because of inaccessibility. The Himalayan foothills and the Potohar region, including the Salt Range and Kala Chitta Range, are covered with scrub forests, which have been reduced to scanty growth in most places. Vast Indus flood plains have been cleared of natural vegetation to grow crops. Very little wildlife habitat has been left untouched. Little vegetative cover, severity of climatic conditions and the great thrust of grazing animals on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. The main threats to wild animals include, the competition with domestic livestock, increasing human interference, the construction of roads, and hunting. Establishment of protected areas is crucial to conservation of existing biodiversity.


1. Biodiversity and wildlife in context of its services

2. Wildlife prior to establishment of Pakistan and current status of wildlife through study of map

3. Vegetative zones, eco-regions and associated wildlife in Pakistan

4. Provincial biodiversity of Pakistan

5. Wildlife rules and regulations in Pakistan

6. Protected areas of Pakistan: Marine protected areas, land protected areas

7. National parks

8. Game reserves

9. Wildlife sanctuaries

10. Ramsar sites and wetlands

11. Major threats to wildlife of Pakistan

12. Endangered fauna of Pakistan

13. Role of national organizations in conservation and management of wildlife

Recommended Texts

1. Fryxell, J. M., Sinclair, A. R. & Caughley, G. (2006). Wildlife ecology, conservation, and management. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.

2. Bolen, E.G. & Robinson, W. (2002). Wildlife ecology and management (5th ed). London: Pearson.

Suggested Readings

1. Roberts, T.J. (1977). Mammals of Pakistan (1st ed.). London: Ernest Benon Ltd.

2. Roberts, T. J. (1991). The birds of Pakistan, regional studies and non-Passeriformes (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

3. Roberts, T. J. (1992). The birds of Pakistan, Passeriformes: pittas to buntings (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4. Sharif M.K. (2006). The amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan. Florida: Krieger Publishing Company.



Sessional: 20%

Final exam: 50%

Midterm exam: 30 %






Msc 1ST (R)



Msc 1ST (R)





Msc 1ST (R)



Course Material