Introduction to Course

The course is designed to provide an introduction to the basic logic of research, its types, functions, literature review, definitions and to train the students for technical tools for going from a hypothesis about the world, to a quantitative empirical statement based on the statistical analysis of experimental data.

Objectives of this course are to understand methodology of scientific research and various research designs, to design, conduct, analyze and interpret the findings of an empirical investigation, to read through and evaluate research papers in scientific journals, to identify ethical concerns in a research study

Learning Outcomes

  • To learn basic principles of experimental design and scientific method.
  • To give an opportunity to collect data of their own which is relevant to the theories, principles, and concepts.
  • To acquire skill of writing a scientific report of research carried out


  1. Introduction to Science and Scientific Research: Scientific and non-scientific approaches to knowledge, definition, features, goals, and steps.
  2. Identifying problems for research, reviewing literature, exploring new ideas for research
  3. The Research Process: Formulating a research problem, conceptualizing a research design, searching instruments for data collection, selecting sample, writing a research proposal, collecting data, processing and displaying data, writing a research report
  4. Theories in Scientific Research: Attributes of a good theory, approaches to theorizing, social science theories
  5. Basics of Empirical Research
  6. Research Design: Qualitative, quantitative & Mixed Methods research
  7. Measurement of Constructs: Quantitative and qualitative measurement, scales of measurement, Scale Reliability and Validity
  8. Sampling: Sampling techniques & types, issues, selecting a sample.
  9. Data Collection methods: Survey Research (Types of surveys, biases in survey research), Experimental Research (Basic concepts, factorial designs, quasi experimental designs), Case study
  10. Interpretive Research: Benefits and challenges of interpretive research, interpretive research designs
  11. Epilogue: Research Ethics according to APA manual (Latest edition)

Recommended Books

  1. Neuman, W. L. (2012). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 7th edition, Princeton university Press.
  2. Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E. B., &Zechmeister, J. S. (2015). Research methods in psychology. (10th ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

Suggested Books

  1. Goodwin, K. A., & Goodwin, C. J. (2017). Research in psychology: Methods and design. (8thed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Nicholas Walliman (2017). Research Methods: The Basics (2nd edition). Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group.
  3. American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Mannual of APA (6thed.). Washington DC: APA


Mid Term:       30

Sessional:      20 ( Assignments & Presentation: 10 Marks, Class Participation & Attendance: 05 Marks, Class Test: 05 Marks)

Final Term:     50

  • Mid Term & Final Term Exam will include objective and subjective question in 40% and 60 % ratio respectively.

CLASS TIMINGS: BS 5th Reg (Monday & Tuesday: 12:30 - 02:00 PM)

Course Material