Title: Surface Phenomena Course

Code: CHEM-484/673

Credit Hours:(3+1)=04

Program :BS-VII/M.Sc III

Instructor: Dr. Iram Hafiz

Email: [email protected]

The main aim of the course is to make the students aware of how surface active molecules
behave in solution and at surfaces and how their behavior can be taken advantage of for many
different applications of science, technology, and biology. The level of understanding should be
such that the students in their profession as engineers will be able to predict the behavior of
surface active components in various industrial and biological areas. Applications of surface
active molecules, i.e., surfactants, surface active polymers, and polar lipids, range from heavy
industrial applications such as mineral ore flotation and paper-making, via detergents and
personal care products, to food and pharmaceuticals. Surface chemistry is a key discipline in the
transition from oil-based to water-based formulations in areas such as paints, printing inks, etc.
The course also aims at illustrating such possibilities.Surfactants are the largest class of so-called
specialty chemicals and are therefore in focus for REACH, the new EU regulation on chemicals
and their safe use. A general information about REACH will be given with examples taken from
the surfactant area.
In general, we can say that this course aims to provide basic knowledge of surface- and colloid
chemistry from a physical-chemical perspective.

The objectives of this course are to make the students to:
 Familiar with the concepts of surface chemistry.
 Analyze principles of kinetics and mechanisms of surface reactions.
 Understand the reaction kinetics and effect of catalyst on it.
 Define methods for the characterization of surfaces.

Students who successfully complete this unit will be able to:
1. Describe the fundamental aspects of colloid and surface chemistry
2. Demonstrate how colloid and surface chemistry is applied in industry and the environment
3. Describe the origin of intermolecular and surface forces
4. Describe the properties of multi-phase systems
5. Describe the concept of interfacial energy
6. Describe surfactant structure and aggregation
7. Use relevant lab based techniques for characterisation of colloids and surface phenomena

1. Kaufman E.D., “Advanced Concepts in Physical Chemistry”. McGraw Hill Book Company. (1966).
2. Atkin P.W., “Elementary Physical Chemistry” 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press. (1998).
3. Scott S. K. “Begining Mathematics for Physical Chemistry” Oxford University Press. (1996).
4. Tebutt P., “Basic Mathematics for Chemists” John Wiley & Sons. 2nd Edition. (1998).
5. Gurdeep R. “Advanced Physical Chemistry” (3 rd Ed). Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd. (2008).

Adsorption, adsorption isotherm, Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, Tempkin, Fowler Gugenheim isotherms. Adsorption
at Liquid surface. Chemisorption and surface heterogeneity. Applications of adsorption. Classification of colloids.
Preparation of sols. Purification of sols. Properties of sols. Electrical properties of sols. Zeta potential. Size of
colloidal particles. The Brownian Movement. Avogadro Number and its determination. Stability of sols. Theories
of origion of charge and its determination. Coagulation. Gels and their properties. Emulsions, Types of emulsions
and their characteristics. Micellization, determination of CMC.

Surface Chemistry Lab. (Cr. 01)
1. Determination of heat of solution of a substance by solubility method.
2. Determination of empirical formula of Ferric-salicylic acid complex colorimetrically.
3. Determination of order of reaction and the rate constant of a given reaction.
4. Verification of Freundlick isotherm for organic acids.
5. To prepare As2S3 sol.
6. Determination of activity coefficients b y measuring elect ro mo ti ve force.
7. Determination of Molar extinction coefficient.

Mid Term Exam: 15%
Sessional: 15%
Project/Practical work: 25%
Presentation: included in sessional marks
Participation: Nil
Final exam: 45%

RULES AND REGULATIONS Following are the rules and regulations that students have to abide by in my class
 Study of course materials as specified by the instructor
 Completion of given task on time
 Minimum attendance 75% is necessary to appear in exam.
 For practical exam also 75% attendance is necessary.
 Keep your mobiles of/silent during class time.

Course Material