Course Title: Physical Chemistry

Course Code: CHEM 5101           Credit Hours:(3+1)=04

Program: BS

Instructor: Dr. Iram Hafiz


This course presents an introduction to quantum mechanics. It begins with an examination of the historical development of quantum theory, properties of particles and waves, wave mechanics and applications to simple systems — the particle in a box and the hydrogen atom. The lectures continue with a discussion of atomic tructure and the Periodic Table. The final lectures cover applications to chemical bonding including valence bond and molecular orbital theory, molecular structure, spectroscopy.
Physical‐Chemistry is a general education lesson and a strong foundation for the smooth course of the students towards the completion of their studies. The subject matter of the course aims at developing scientific methodology and scientific thinking. Knowledge of the content of the course is not an end in itself but rather a means for the ability to interpret physicochemical processes as well as for the possibility of exploratory and combinational thinking that students will be asked to integrate and adapt to physical‐Chemistry of materials. The aim of the lesson is also to develop the reflection and to practice the student in thinking in the language of Science, to observe and not to see, to interpret phenomena and not to memorize theories. The course in Physical Chemistry I is reinforced with the introduction of the Physical‐ Chemistry Laboratory course.

 By interpreting the real gases, the student will be able to solve the problems.
 describes the ideal and real gases.
 uses the Van Der Waals gas equation.
 uses the real gas and Van Der Waals isoterms.
 describes the critical state, adapts critical state equation to the problems.
 By interpreting the some properties of liquids and solids, the student will be able to solve the
 describes the condensed phases.
 express and uses the vapour pressure.
 Interpreting the phase equilibrium in simple systems, the student will be able to questions
 express the stability of the phases in the pure substance.
 interprets the pressure dependence of T-M curve.
 adapt the Clapeyron equation to the solid-liquid, liquid-gas and solid-gas equilibrium.
 uses the phase diagrams.
 expresses the effect of pressure on the vapour pressure.
 By describing the ideal solution, the student will be able to recognize, use and compare the
colligative properties.
 describe the kinds of solutions.
 explains the ideal solution and debate the chemical potential in ideal solution.
 explains and interprets the colligative properties (FPD, EBP and osmotic pressure).
 interpret the more than one volatile component: the idealk solution.
 adapts the colligatives properties on non-ideal systems.
 expresses the activity in the electrolytic solutions.
 uses the Debye-Huckel theory.


1. Maron S. H. and Jerome, B. “Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry” Macruthan Publishing co. Inc. New York, (1995). 2. Atkins P.W. and Clugston, M.J. “Principles of Physical Chemistry’ Pitam Publishing Company. NY (1998) 3. Moore, W.J., “Physical Chemistry”, 5th Ed. Longmans Publishers, NY (1972) 4. Jones, M., “Elements of Physical Chemistry” 3 rd Ed. Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company Inc., NY (1993). 5. Adamson, A. W., “Understanding Physical Chemistry” 3 rd Ed. Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company Inc. NY (1973) 6. Heald, C. and Smith, A.C.K. Applied Physical Chemistry. MacMillan UK (1973). 7. Levitt, B.P., “Findlay’s Practical Physical Chemistry”. 9th Ed. Longman, London (1973). 8. Das, R.C. and B. Behera, “Experimental Physical Chemistry”, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi (2003). 9. Crocleford, H.D., H.W. Biard, F.W. Getzen & J.W. Nowell, “Laboratory Manual
of Physical Chemistry”, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, London (1975). 10. Chaudhry, G.R., Text Book of Physical Chemistry, 2nd Edition, New Kitab Markaz, Aminpur Bazar, Faisalabad, Pakistan, (2001). 11. Bhatti, H.N. and K. Hussain, “Principles of Physical Chemistry”; Carwan Book House, Lahore (2005).

Elementary Mathematics: i.e., Logarithmic, exponential and trignometric functions, differentiation of elementary functions, methods of differentiation & integration, significance of differentiation & integration.
Physical States of Mater i.e., Gases (van der Waal’s equation, critical Phenomena, Critical values of T, P &V., liquification of gases, molecular collisions, collision diameter, mean free path) Liquids (viscosity, Parachor value, Refractive index, molar refraction and its applications. Dipole moment, Solids (Unit cells. Bragg crystal analysis, crystal structure of NaCl, powder method of crystal structure analysis).
Atomic Structure i.e., De Brogile equation. Schrodinge wave equation, solution for particle in 1D box, quantization concept, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, Puali
Exclusion Principle, Hund’s Rule.
Chemical Thermodynamics i.e., First law of thermodynamics, state functions, isothermal and adiabatic processes in ideal gases, heat capacity, reversible and irreversible processes. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, second law of thermodynamics, change of entropy with change in T, P &V.
Chemical Equilibrium i.e., Law of Mass Action, equilibrium constant, relationship
between Kc, Kp, Kx and Ka and LeChaterlier’s Principle.
Solutions i.e., composition, ideal and non ideal solutions. Raoult’s law. colligative properties, ebullioscopy, cryoscopy, osmotic pressure, distillation and concept of azeotrops
Chemical Kinetics i.e., Zero, first and second order reaction, Arrhenius equation,
activation energy, Lindermmann’s mechanism, collision theory and transition state theory.
Electrochemistry i.e., Conductance, dependence of conductance on the nature of
solvent and temperature, Kohlrausch’s law and its applications, measurement of conductance strong and weak electrolytes, degree of dissociation.

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LAB (Cr. 01) 1. Determination of surface tension and Parachor value by stalagmometer. 2. Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions from surface tension measurement. 3. Determination of viscosity and Rhechor value of liquids from viscosity measurement. 4. Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions viscometrically. 5. Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity by refractometer. 6. Determination of percent composition of liquid solutions by refractive index measurements. 7. Determination of heat of solution by solubility method. 8. Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base. 9. A kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. 10. Kinetic study of saponification of ethyl acetate. 11. Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation in boiling point. (Ebullioscopic method). 12. Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point (The Cryoscopic methods). 13. Determination of equilibrium constant of KI + I2 Kl3 14. Conductometirc titration of strong acid and strong base.


Mid Term Exam: 15%

Sessional: 15%

Project/Practical work: 25%

Presentation: included in sessional marks Participation: Nil

Final exam: 45%

RULES AND REGULATIONS Following are the rules and regulations that students have to abide by in my class
 Study of course materials as specified by the instructor
 Completion of given task on time
 Minimum attendance 75% is necessary to appear in exam.
 For practical exam also 75% attendance is necessary.
 Keep your mobiles of/silent during class time.

Course Material