This course focuses on introduction to pulse crops, significance of pulses in human diet importance pulse crops. Botanical description of different pulse crops like chickpea, lentil, mung bean, black gram, dry peas, common beans etc., breeding methods in pulse crops, hybridization of pulse crops and its limitation, mutation breeding and limitations of use of physical and chemical mutagens in pulse crops breeding. Status of pulses in Pakistan, over view of research activities being done in different research institutes/organizations and reasons of low yield of pulses in Pakistan. Visit of different pulse crops research institutes and pulse factories are the segments of this course. It will enable students to understand significance and status of pulses, constraints in pulse breeding, mutation breeding to develop new pulse varieties, use of different physical and chemical mutagens, limitation of hybridization of pulse crops, breeding methods for biotic and abiotic stresses and role of biotechnology to improve pulse crops.




  1. Introduction to pulse crops. Significance of pulses in human diet.
  2. Status of pulses in Pakistan: an overview, reasons of low yield in pulse crops.
  3. Botanical description, and breeding methods in pulse crops.
  4. Intra and Inter-specific hybridization in pulse crops.
  5. Limitations in hybridization.
  6. Special consideration on fertilizer, and irrigation responsive cultivars, reduced photoperiod sensitivity and biotic and abiotic stresses.
  7. Genetic mechanism of nitrogen fixation in pulses.
  8. Role of mutation breeding in pulses. Use of innovative tools for improvement of pulses



  1. Reproductive biology of important pulses.
  2. Hybridization techniques in major pulse crops.
  3. Phenological data notes and analysis.
  4. Study of rhizobium nodulation and nitrogen fixation in various pulse crops.
  5. Visit to research stations.


Recommended Texts


  1. Sleper, D.A. & Poehlman, J.M. (2006). Breeding Field Crops.  Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
  2. Singh, D.P. (ed). (2001). Genetics and Breeding of Pulse Crops. Kalyani Publishers New Delhi, India.


Suggested Readings


  1. Ali, M. (2006). Drought Management Strategies for Pulse crops. Agrotech. Publishing Academy, Udaipur, India.
  2. Nagata, T. & Tabata, S. (ed). (2003). Brassica and Legumes - From Genome Structure to Breeding. Springer Verlag, New York, USA.
  3. Persley, G.J. (ed.). (1984). Tropical Legume Improvement. Biotech Anutech Pvt. Ltd., Canberra, Australia.