This is a BS level introductory course taught to enable students to understand: Basic concepts of genetics, understanding why the characters of offsprings are similar to their parents, what can be the possible reason for the variation that the offsprings show to their parents. Mechanism of heredity underlying laws of genetics and their practical manifestation in the form of various monohybrid as well as dihybrid crosses. Understanding the linkage and epistasis as potential reasons for deviation from the law of independent assortment.  Understanding the concepts of allele and gene both at genotypic as well as phenotypic level. Understanding the process and purposes of the cell cycle, meiosis, and mitosis, as well as the outcomes of these processes. Enabling the students to solve various genetics problems, making calculated and accurate predictions about the inheritance of genetic traits, and map the locations of genes. Chemical and molecular nature of nucleic acids i.e. RNA and DNA. Understanding the concept of gene expression from gene to its product.


             The  student will understands

  1. Basic concepts of genetics
  2. Mechanism of heredity
  3. Effect of environment on organism
  4. Chemical and molecular nature of gene


  1. Singh, B.D. (2004). Genetics. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India.

  2. Klug, W.S. & Cummings, M. R. (2003)). Concepts of Genetics. (7thed.), Pearson Education, Singapore.

  3. Sing, P. (2003). Elements of Genetics. (2nd ed.) Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi, India
  4. Rehman, A., Shakoor, A & Khan M.A. (1980). Elements of Genetics. Deptt. Plant Breeding & Genetics, Univ. Agri. Faisalabad.
  5. Pierce, B. A. 2002. Genetics- A conceptual approach. (2nd ed.) W. H. Freeman and Company. New York.
  6. Stansfield, W.D. ((1988) Theory and Problems of Genetics. 4thed. McGraw-Hill Book Co, NY.
  7. Khan I.A. Azhar, F.M.  Ali, Z. & Khan, A.A. (2008). Solving Numerical Genetic Problems. Dept. Plant Breed. Genet. Uni. Agri. Faisalabad.



  1. Definition of genetics, concepts of heredity and variation.
  2. Cell and cell divisions. Mendelian genetics: chromosome theory of heredity, various genotypic and phenotypic ratios and their modifications.
  3. Differences between allelic and non-allelic interactions (epistasis), illustration of epistasis with suitable examples.
  4. Pleiotropy and multiple allelism. Multiple factor hypothesis. Linkage and crossing over.
  5. Sex determination: sex linked and sex influenced traits.
  6. Chromosomal aberrations.
  7. Nucleic acids: nature, structure and function.
  8. Classical vs modern concepts of gene.


  1. Study of cell divisions and gametogenesis.
  2. Calculation of monohybrid and dihybrid ratios.
  3. Numerical examples relating to gene interaction, multiple alleles and multiple factor inheritance.
  4. Calculation of linkage from test cross and F2 data.


Mid term Sessional Final term Practical Total
30 20 25 25 100

Course Material