EDUC-6220                      Foundations of Education (Foundation)                             3(3+0)



The major focus will be on developing an understanding of the participants how different philosophical theories affect education. The course will also include historical development of education of the Pakistan. Emphasize will be given on analyzing various sociological, political, economic and ideological forces that   influence the process of education in our culture context.  This course will also be used to develop the ability in prospective teachers to interpret knowledge within   its historical, philosophical, ideological, and social contexts, which will lead to produce critical perspectives on education both within, and outside of, schools. The course will explore general questions such as: What is the ultimate goal of education? How is education different from social indoctrination? Should education limit itself to imparting literacy, numeracy, and various kinds of skill and information, or should teachers also strive to influence the character and values of their students? In addition to these, various specific topics of current interest in the philosophy of education may be explored, such as: academic freedom; access to education; social and moral values, the ethics of education; religious values in individual and social life.



The students will be able to:

·      Explain   the   important   features   of   foundation   of education

·      Specify the role of educational thinkers in education

·      Discuss the modes of education

·      Discuss historical development of Pakistan

·      Evaluate the issues and problems of education.

Course Outline

Unit 1   Ideological Foundation of Education

1.1   Islamic Foundations

1.2   Islamic concept of Peace

1.3   Other religions and Islam

1.4   Ideology and teachers


Unit 2   Philosophical Foundations of Education


2.1 Philosophy and Education

2.2 Main Philosophical Thoughts

2.3 Idealism

2.4 Realism

2.5 Pragmatism

2.6 Re-constructionism


Unit 3   Psychological Foundations of Education

3.1. Learning and Maturation


3.2. Individual Differences

3.3. Self-Concept

3.4. Academic Aptitude

3.5. Instructional Strategies and Psychology


Unit 4   Socio-Economic Foundations of Education

4.1. Concept of Society and Culture

4.2. Social Conditions and Education

4.3. Economic Conditions and Education

4.4. Politics and Education


Unit 5   Historical Foundations of Education in Pakistan

5.1. Pre-Pakistan Period (712 A.D. to onward)

5.2. Period from 1947-1958

5.3. Period From 1959-1971

5.4. Period from 1972-1979

5.5. Period from 1980 -1991

5.6. Period from 1992 – to date


Unit  6  Aims of Education

6.1. Aims, Goals and Objectives

6.2. Taxonomies of Objectives

6.3. Aims and Objectives of Education in Pakistan


Unit 7   Problems and Issues in Education in Pakistan

7.1. Universalization of Primary Education

7.2. Literacy

7.3. Medium of Instruction

7.4. Diversification of Education

7.5. Environmental Education

7.6. Gender and Education

7.7. Islamiazation of Education

7.8. Special Education

7.9. Health Education / Drug Education

7.10.      HIV / Aids, STIs, Hepatitis


Recommended Texts

  1. Canestrari,  A.  (2019). Foundations of education.  New York:  Sage Publications.
  2. Bartlett, S., & Burton, D. (2020). Introduction to education studies. California: SAGE Publications Limited.


Suggested Readings

  1. Sadovnik, A. R., Cookson Jr, P. W., Semel, S. F., & Coughlan, R. W. (2017). Exploring education: An introduction to the foundations of education. New York: Routledge.
  2. Ornstein, A. C., Levine, D. U., Gutek, G., & Vocke, D. E. (2016). Foundations of education. Nashville: Nelson Education.
  3. Eugene,   F.P.  (2016).   Critical   issues   in education:   Anthology   of reading. New York: Sage Publications.

4:    Murphy, D. (2015). Foundations/Introduction to teaching. New York: Sage Publications.                                                                 

Sessional marks:20

Mid Term: 30 marks

Final Term: 50 marks


Monday: 11:00-12:30

Friday : 9:30-11:00




Course Material