The main objective of the course is to develop understanding of the students about different environmental stresses (i.e biotic and abiotic stresses) and how these stresses are influencing plant growth. The students will also learn that how drought, water logging, salinity and high temperature negatively influence plant growth. This course will also deliver knowledge about different phenotypic changes that plant can adopt under various stresses. This course will also provide information regarding different techniques of soil and plant sampling under stressed conditions. By adopting various molecular and genetic approaches, the farmer will be able to cope and compensate with the environmental variables.  Endogenous application of plant growth regulators, molecular mechanisms controlling plant growth as well as description of transgenic plants will also able the students to manage plant growth under different stresses.

Objectives of the course:

  1. Knowledge about different types of environmental stress.
  2. Influence of various stresses on plant growth.
  3. Use of different techniques of soil and plant sampling under stressed conditions.
  4. Understanding of molecular mechanisms regarding plant growths
  5. Endogenous application of plant growth regulators

Intended Learning Outcomes

1) This module will provide an understanding of the unique features of plant cells and a general grounding on plant physiology and growth.

2)  In addition it will provide a brief introduction to the various physiological, molecular, and biochemical mechanisms plants use to respond to environmental stresses like extreme temperature, drought, salt, and pathogens.

3)  The basic physical and physiological principles will be covered in combination with recent research progress in these fields. 

Course Content 


  1. Type of stresses:

    1.1        Nutrient stress

    1.2        Salinity/sodicity stress

    1.3        Water stress

    1.4        Heat stress

    1.5        Oxygen stress

    1.6        Mechanical stress

  2. Effect of different stresses and their interaction on plant growth
  3. Mechanisms of tolerance to different stresses
  4. Management of plant growth under stressed environments.


  1. Soil and plant sampling techniques for various stresses
  2. Demonstration of plant growth under stressed environments

Recommended Books

  1. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger. 2006. Plant Physiology. 4th Ed. Wadsworth Publication Co., Sunderland, MA, USA.
  2. Gupta, U.S. 2004. Physiology of Stressed Crops. Science Publishers, Enfield, NH, USA.
  3. Shabala, S. 2017. Plant stress physiology. 2nd Ed.
  4. Marschner, H. 2003. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. Elsevier Science Ltd., San Diego, CA, USA.
  5. Pessarakli, M. (ed.). 1999. Handbook of Plant and Crop Stress. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.
  6. Kenneth, K.T. Agricultural salinity Assessment and Management. Manuals and reports on Engineering Practice No. 71.
  7. Maloo, S. R. 2002. Sustainable Crop Production under stress environments.


08 (project, presentation, participation)

Project: 04

Presentation: 02

Participation: 02

Mid exam: 12

Final exam: 20

Practical exam: 20

Course Material