Objectives and Learning Outcomes

The aim of this course is basically to introduce students with soil and environment. This course is vital to develop understanding about the natural systems like soil and environment; and apply their knowledge to solving soil and environmental problems. Moreover, this course will help the students to understand the behavior of soils in supporting the growth of crops and maintaining a clean environment. At the completion of this course, students will be able to understand;

  1. Soil forming processes and different factors involved.
  2. Significance of physical properties of soil in crop growth.
  3. The dominant soil parent material present and classification of Pakistani soils according to their use.
  4. The methods of water quality assessment regarding its fitness for soil and crop growth.
  5. Soil, water and air pollution and its impact on crop growth and environment.  



  1. Introduction to Soil and environment: definition of earth, geology and soil science; disciplines of soil science; lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere
  2. Soil forming rocks and minerals: types and their formation.
  3. Weathering of rocks and minerals: definition. Agents and classification
  4. Parent materials: definition and types
  5. Soil formation: definitions, processes and factors
  6. Soil profile: definition and description
  7. Physical properties of soil and their significance
  8. Introduction to soil classification and land use capability classes
  9. Soil, water and air pollution: sources and types


  1. Methods of soil sampling and handling
  2. Preparation of saturated soil paste
  3. Determination of soil water contents
  4. Analysis of irrigation water, report writing and interpretation.
  5. Textural analysis of soil

Recommended Books

  1. Bashir, E. and R. Bantel. 2001. Soil Science. National Book Foundation, Islamabad.
  2. Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2007. The Nature and Properties of Soils. 14th Ed. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
  3. Brady, N.C. and R.R. Weil. 2009. Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils. 3rd Ed. Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
  4. Hillel, D. 2008. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. Elsevier Inc., Burlington, MA, USA.
  5. Singer, M.J. and D.N. Munns. 2002. Soils- An Introduction. 5th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
  6. Das, D.K. 2011. Introductory Soil Science. 3rd ed. Kalyani Publ. New Delhi-110002, India.

Assessment Criteria

Sessional: 08 (project, presentation, participation)

Project: 04

Presentation: 02

Participation: 02

Mid exam: 12

Final exam: 20

Practical exam: 20

Course Material