The purpose of this course is to provide information and understanding regarding the prospects and possibilities of raising Energy Plantations, bio-fuel production, and conversion technologies. The chief objective of the course, Energy Plantations, is to teach the students how to produce biomass from the selected trees and shrub species in the shortest possible time and at the minimal cost, so as to satisfy energy needs especially in rural areas of the country, where modern sources of energy are not available yet. The course emphasizes the idea of raising and developing energy plantations at large scale so that they may be useful to fulfill the demands of fuel wood for household cooking and energy purposes for growing population at domestic level as well as for small and medium industry. The course also introduces the students with different biomass-to-energy conversion technologies to deal with a feedstock which are highly variable in mass and energy density, size, moisture content, and intermittent supply of energy.

Intended Learning Outcomes

  • The students will understand the need for research and development on environment friendly and socio economically relevant energy plantations. Criteria for evaluation of different species for energy plantation.
  • The students will know to develop understanding regarding the prospects and possibilities of raising bioenergy plantations, bio-fuel production, and conversion technologies.
  • The students will understand the different types of bio-fuels energy sources and how they produce energy.
  • The students will be capable to address practical and theoretical issues related to bio-energy processes and plants and will also capable to solve simple and complex bio-energy problems.


  1. Introduction and advantages of energy plantations.
  2. Basic concepts of forest production ecology.
  3. A brief introduction to bio-energy conversion technologies.
  4. Assessment of bio-energy programs in Pakistan.
  5. Important bio-fuel species and their Silvicultural management.
  6. Overview of the markets for wood biomass for energy production globally and within the Pakistan.
  7. Fundamentals of the policies that have impacts on supply and consumption of energy wood.
  8. Need for research and development on environment friendly and socio economically relevant technologies.
  9. Petro-crops.
  10. Advanced energy technologies in the production of bio-fuels
  11. Determination of calorific value, moisture and ash contents in biomass
  12. Study of energy consumption pattern in rural and urban areas
  13. Visit to nearby bio-energy units

Recommended Books

  1. Woodfuel energy in Pakistan by K. M. Siddique, M. Ayaz and Iqbal Mohammad. PAKISTAN FOREST INSTITUTE PESHAWAR 1997.
  2. Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals by Donald L.K. 2010. Amazon Publishers
  3. Small Holder Tree Growing for Rural Development and Environmental Services by  Snelder, D.J. and R. Lasco. 2008. Springer Publisher.
  4. Forest Resources and Wood based biomass by William, B. R. and Gowen. 1994. Oxford and IBH New Delhi.

Suggested Readings

  1. Basics of forestry and allied sciences Vol. I and Vol. II by Masood A. A., Quraishi

Assessment Criteria

  • Mid Term Exam: 12
  • Sessional: 08 (Assignment + Presentation)
  • Final Exam: 20
  • Practical Exam: 20
  • Total Marks: 60

Time of Class Meeting

  • Tuesday: 08:00 am to 08:50 am (Theory)
  • Wednesay: 12:10 pm to 01:00 pm (Theory)
  • Friday: 08:00 am to 10:30 am (Practical)


Course Material