To enable the student understand

1.         Basis of plant breeding

2.         Reproductive mechanisms in major crops

3.         Application of genetic principles in crop improvement 

4.         Breeding methods in self and cross pollinated crops


The purpose of this course is to teach the students of B.Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture Basis of plant breeding, Reproductive mechanisms in major crops, Application of genetic principles in crop improvement, Breeding methods in self and cross pollinated crops



  1. Introduction to plant breeding and its role in crop improvement.
  2. Reproductive systems in major crop plants.
  3. Genetic variation and its exploitation, creation of variation through genetic recombination, mutation and heteroploidy.
  4. Breeding self-pollinated crops: introduction, mass selection, pure line selection; hybridization, pedigree method, bulk method and backcross techniques.
  5. Breeding cross-pollinated crops: introduction, mass selection, recurrent selection, development and evaluation of inbred lines, development of hybrids, synthetic and composite populations.
  6. Breeding colonaly propagated crops.
  7. New trends in plant breeding


  1. Descriptive study of floral biology, scientific names, chromosome number and ploidy level of important field crops.
  2. Selfing and crossing techniques in major crops.
  3. List of approved varieties in major field crops.
  4. Field visits of different research organizations.


  1. Khan, M.A and M. Ahmad. 2008. Plant Breeding. Daya Publishing House, New Dehli, India.
  2. Sleper, D.A and J.M. Poehlman.2006. Breeding Field Crops. 5th ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, USA.
  3. Chahal, G.S. and S.S Gosal. 2003. Principles and Procedures of Plant Breeding. Narosa Publishing House New Dehli India. 
  4. Singh, B.D. 2003. Plant breeding: Principles and Methods. Kalyani Publisher, New Dehli India
  5. Singh, P. 2003. Essentials of Plant breeding.Kalyani Publisher, New Dehli India.
  6. Sadaqat, H. A., I. A. Khan and T. M. Khan. 2007. Introductory Plant Breeding. 2nd ed. Study aid foundation for education, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad

Course Material