Introduction to Education


The course focuses on the introduction of basic concepts in education and the ideological, philosophical and psychological foundations of education along with developing an understanding of education and major terminologies. The course will also include guidance and counseling as an essential component of education so that effective educational process may be streamlined. Emphasis will be given on analyzing various sociological, political, economic and ideological forces that influence the process of education in our cultural context. This course will also be used to develop the ability in prospective teachers to interpret knowledge with its historical, philosophical, ideological and social context, which will lead to produce critical aspects of education both within and outside the school. The basic objectives of the course are to define the basic concepts of education, to describe the important features of foundations of education and understand the role of education in society so that overall development of prospective teacher may be ensured which is the basic aim ofeducation.

Learning Outcomes:

After the successful completion of the course, the students will be able to:

  • Define the basic concepts and elements of education
  • Describe the important features of foundations of Education
  • Understand the role of education in society
  • Summarize and identify aims of education, types of curriculum and general
  • methods of curriculum delivery.
  • Know the various philosophies of education and explain their application in
  • education
  • Compare and contrast different modes of education and evaluate the benefits
  • and limitations of each
  • Describe the role of guidance and counseling in school

Course Outline

1. Introduction to Education

1.1. Definition of Education

1.2. Education as a process and product

1.3. Functions of education

1.4. Elements of Education

1.5. Types and modes of Education

2. Foundations of Education

2.1. Islamic Education: Chronic reforms and teachings of Prophets

2.2. Philosophical foundations

2.3. Relationship between philosophy and education

2.4. Main philosophical thought

2.5. Contributions of Philosophy towards education

2.6. Sociological Foundations

2.6.1. Relationship between education and sociology

2.6.2. School and Society

2.7. Psychological foundations

2.7.1. Relationships between Education and Sociology

2.7.2. Contribution of Psychology towards Education

3.          Aims of Education and Curriculum

  1. Aims of Education (spiritual, Moral, Intellectual, Economic, Vocational, Social and cultural)
    1. Curriculum
    2. Definition
    3. Difference between Curriculum and Syllabus
    4. Components of Curriculum (Aims and Objectives, Context and content relations procedures, characteristics of good textbooks)
    5. Methods of Teaching
    6. Different methods of teaching-evaluation, What, Why, When, and how to


Characteristics of good curriculum 

4.    Structure of Education

  1. Pre-primary
  2. Primary
  3. Secondary
  4. Tertiary
  5. Modes of Education
    1. Formal
    2. Non-Formal
    3. Informal
  6. Basic Educational Philosophies
  7. Learning and Methods of Learning
  8. Society, Community, and Education
    1. Meaning of Society and Community
    2. Social functions of School
    3. Interrelationship between Society and Education
    4. Role of Education in Development of Society
  9. Guidance and Counseling
    1. Definition and Difference between Guidance and Counseling
    2. Need of Educational Guidance
    3. Role of Guidance in Schools
    4. Forms of Guidance
    5. Importance of Counseling in Schools
    6. Methods of Counseling Recommended Texts:
      1. Bartlett, S., & Burton, D. (2016). Introduction to Education Studies New York: Sage Publishing Inc.
      2. Shahid, S.M. (2012). Introduction to Education. Lahore: Majeed Book Depot.

Suggested Readings:

  1. O'Connor, D. J. (2016). An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. London:


  1. Sadovnik, A. R., Cookson Jr, P. W., Semel, S. F., & Coughlan, R. W. (2017).

Course Material