Course code: PLBG-7101

Credit Hours: 3(2+1)


Plant breeding, application of genetic principles to produce plants that are more useful to humans. Plant breeding improves the characteristics of the plant to make them more desirable agronomically and economically. Main objectives include increased production, resistance to lodging, resistance to pests and diseases, improved quality, and crop plants suited to specific soils and climates. This is accomplished by selecting plants found to be economically or aesthetically desirable, first by controlling the mating of selected individuals, and then by selecting certain individuals among the progeny. The following genetic principles are useful to improve the heredity of plants. Variation: Differences among be due to genotype or environment. It focuses on the variability and its exploitation, creation of variations, breeding objectives, and breeding methods. At the end of the course, students will be able to understand the development of inbred lines and hybrid seed production, seed certification, and MAS in plant breeding.


  • Students will be able to understand the basic concepts of plant breeding
  • Hybridization techniques in various crops
  • Application of genetic principles in crop improvement
  • Breeding methods in self and cross-pollinated crops


  1. Sleper, D. A., & Poehlman, J. M. (2006). Breeding field crops (No. Ed. 5). Blackwell publishing.
  2. Singh, B. D. (2006). Plant Breeding: Principles and Methods. Kalyani.
  3. Khan, M.A., Bashir, E & Bantel, R. (Editors). (1994). Plant Breeding. National Book Foundation, Islamabad.
  4. Fehr, W. (1991). Principles of cultivar development: theory and technique. Macmillian Publishing Company.
  5. Allard, R. W. (1999). Principles of plant breeding. John Wiley & Sons.
  6. Acquaah, G. (2009). Principles of Plant Genetics and Breeding. John Wiley & Sons, UK.
  7. Sadaqat, H. A., Khan I. A. & Khan T. M. (2007). Introductory Plant Breeding. 2nd ed. Study aid foundation for education, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad



  1. Role of Plant Breeding in crop improvement.
  2. Variability in natural populations and its exploitation.
  3. Creation of genetic variation using conventional and non-conventional techniques.
  4. Specific objectives in various self and cross pollinated crops.
  5. Breeding methods in self- pollinated crops.
  6. Breeding methods in cross pollinated crops.
  7. Heterosis and its exploitation in crop improvement.
  8. Development, evaluation and improvement of inbred lines.
  9. A, B and R lines in hybrid seed production. Variety evaluation committee.
  10. Novelty and DUS characteristics in varietal registration.
  11. Seed certification.
  12. Seed production system of approved, pure line and hybrid varieties.
  13. Reverse breeding. 
  14. Marker assisted selection in plant breeding.


  1. Hybridization techniques in self-pollinated and cross-pollinated crops.
  2. Handling of segregating and inbred generations.
  3. Layout of experiments and collection of experimental data, its tabulation and interpretation.
  4. Estimating effective population and sample size.
  5. Visits to various research institutes.


Mid term Sessional Final term Practical Total
30 20 25 25 100