Course Code: ZOL-6202

Credit Hours: 4(3+1)

The course aims to

  1. Provide knowledge of the biomolecules and their polymerized compounds important for the structural and metabolic needs of life.
  2. Develop an understanding about the dynamisity of life as it proceeds with inter-conversion of the biomolecules in metabolic activities.
  3. To inculcate the impotance and attributes of enzymes as metabolic tools and vitamins as co-enzymes - the hepers in enzymatic activities.
  4. Enable students to know how organisms harvest of energy for growth and development. 

Books Recommended

  1. Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M. 2012. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. McMillan worth Publishers, New York.
  2. Berg, J. M., Tymoczko,J. L.,Lubert Stryer. 2010. Biochemistry. 7TH Ed.
  3. Lodish, H., Berk, A., Zipursky, S. L., Paul. M., Baltimore D.,Darnell, J. 2012. Molecular Cell Biology.
  4. McKee, T., McKee, J.R. 2003.Biochemistry: The Molecular Basis of Life. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill.
  5. Wilson, K., Walker, J. 1994.Practical Biochemistry: Principles and Techniques, 4th Ed., Cambridge University Press.



    Books with page no


    Amino acids, peptides and proteins: standard amino acids, their structure and classification; acid/base properties of amino acids and their titration curves;

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry; 101-110


    Peptides, their ionic behavior and amino acid composition, cytochrome c

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Proteins: level of structural organization, example of structural and functional proteins.




    Enzymes: Introduction; important characteristics of enzymes; immobilized enzymes; how enzymes work; example of enzymatic reaction; enzyme kinetics, enzyme rate of reaction and substrate concentration, how pH and temperature effect on enzyme activity.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Carbohydrates: Classification, types, important characteristics and structure of carbohydrates

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Cyclic structure of monosaccharides; cyanohydrin formation; disaccharides their types structure and function

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Polysaccharides, storage and structural types; structure and major functions of polysaccharides.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Lipids: fatty acids, their types and major characteristics;

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Storage lipids, acylglycerols; waxes; structural lipids in membranes; major functions of lipids; Lipoproteins, their types and major functions.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Vitamins and cofactors: occurrence, structure and biochemical function of vitamins B complex group.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry



    Metabolism: detailed description of glycolysis and catabolism of other hexoses; regulation and bioenergetics of glycolysis. Anabolic role of glycolysis; fate of pyruvate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, lactate, acetyl CoA and ethanol formation

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    Alcoholic fermentation; gluconeogenesis, its regulation and significance in the tissues; feeder pathways in glycolysis; utilization of other carbohydrates in glycolysis phosphorolysis and starch; regulation of glycogen metabolism.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    Citric acid (TCA) cycle: conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, pyruvate dehydrogenase, a multi-enzyme complex; detailed description of citric acid cycle; bioenergetics and conservation of energy produced in the cycle. Anabolic or biosynthetic role of citric acid cycle intermediates;

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    Replenishing or anaplerotic reactions and their role; regulation of citric acid cycle; Electron transport and its components, oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmotic theory, ATP synthesis, uncouple electron transport and heat generation.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    Lipid metabolism: oxidation of fatty acids; digestion, mobilization and transport of fats; biosynthesis of triacylglycerol; utilization of triacylglycerol; activation of fatty acids and their transportation to mitochondria; beta-oxidation; bioenergetics of beta-oxidation

    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids; omega oxidation pathway; biosynthesis of saturated fatty acid, supply of raw material for palmitic acid synthesis; fatty acid synthetase (FAS) multienzyme complex; Ketone bodies their biosynthesis, utilization and role in the tissues; cholesterol metabolism: Steroid hormones.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry


    Nitrogen metabolism: metabolic fate of amino acids; catabolism of amino acids; deamination and transamination; nitrogen excretion and urea cycle; regulation of urea cycle.


    Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry

    Time table

    Tuesday:             9-10AM

    Wednesday:        8-10AM,    12-1PM

    Thursday:       10-11PM 

    Date of commencement: 26-10-2020