To educate the students for enhancing crop production under limited moisture regimes.


Introduction, concept and causes of aridity; Climatic zones of Pakistan and their features; Climatic factors such as light, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, wind, etc. and their effects on crop yield; Crop growth and yield responses to moisture supply in different soils; Evapotranspiration (ET), relation between crop yield and ET; Dry farming, water conservation practices, tillage, fertilizer use, sowing date and plant density; Crop rotations and cropping patterns in rain fed regions; Water harvesting practices.


Demonstration of rainwater harvesting and conservation techniques; Determination of soil moisture; Mulching and tillage practices for moisture conservation; Field visits.

Books Recommended:

  1. Arnon, I. 2012. Agriculture in Dry Lands: Principles and Practices. Elsevier, London
  2. Chandrasekaran, B.K., Annadurai and E. Somasundaram. 2010. A Textbook of Agronomy. New Age International Pub., New Delhi, India.
  3. Hudson, N.W. 2004. Soil and Water Conservation in Semi-arid Areas. Scientific Publishers, India.
  4. Khan, S.R.A, 2001. Crop Management in Pakistan with Focus on Soil & Water. Agri. Deptt. Govt. of Punjab. Lahore.
  5. Maloo, S.R. 2002. Sustainable Crop Production under stress environments. Agro-tech Publishing Academy, Udaipur. India.
  6. Panda, S.C. 2005. Agronomy. Agrobios, Jodhpur, India.


Time Table

Tuesday: 8:50-9:40 (T)

Thursday: 10:30-11:20 (T)

Friday :         8:50-10:30 Practical

Course Material