Diversity of the plants is a major component of nature not only important for their value as a source of energy but they are also having wide potential to protect the environment in multifold directions.This course offers an evolutionary survey of the origin and diversification of land plants through geological time. The course will start with the green algae and on how plants may have transitioned from aquatic to the land environment. Land plants that will be discussed include bryophytes, lycophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms with emphasis on representative fossil and living taxa.

Lectures will emphasize on life histories, anatomical and morphological adaptations, ecology and climate change, extinction, phylogenetics, economic importance, and conservation strategies of representative taxa. Plants are one of the most successful and abundant groups of organisms on earth, comprising the majority of terrestrial biomass, being integral to ecosystem structure, and providing humans with food, shelter, and materials. Plants are multi-cellular and mostly photosynthetic organisms which found essentially everywhere, both in water and on land. Plants are really important for the planet and for all living things. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen from their leaves, which humans and animals need to breathe.

Course Contents:

Comparative study of life form, structure, reproduction and economic significance of:

  1. Viruses (RNA and DNA types) with special reference to TMV
  2. Bacteria and Cyanobacteria (Nostoc, Anabaena, Oscillatoria) with specific reference to bio fertilizers, pathogenicity and industrial importance;
  3. Algae (Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Chara, Vaucheria, Pinnularia, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia)
  4. Fungi (Mucor, Penicillium, Phyllactinia, Ustilago, Puccinia, Agaricus) their implication on crop production and industrial applications.
  5. Lichens (Physcia)
  6. Bryophytes (Riccia, AnthocerosFunaria)
  7. Pteridophytes: Psilopsida (Psilotum) , Pteropsida (Marsilea), Sphenopsida (Equisetum) Lycopsida (Selaginella)
  8. Gymnosperms (Cycas, PinusEphedra)
  9. Angiosperms: Monocot (Poaceae) , Dicot (Solanaceae)

Course aim

This course aims to develop understanding about core concept of occurrence, distribution, structure and life history of lower to higher plants such as algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms and angiosperms

Learning outcomes/ learning objectives:

By the end of this course students should be able to understand

  • Structure, multiplication and economic importance of virus, bacteria and cyanobacteria
  • Phylogeny and evolutionary concepts in different plant groups
  • The diversity of plants
  • Differentiate various groups of plants on morphological basis

Assessment Method:

(Traditional method)


Presentations & assignment               20

Practicals:                                           20

Mid Term Exam:                                 20

Final exam:                                        40

Online Exam: 

Sessional                                        20

Mid Term                                         30

Final Term                                       50

Recommended Texts

  1. Bellinger, E. G. & Sigee, D. C. (2015). Freshwater algae. USA: Wiley Publishers.
  2. Prestre, P. G. (2017). Governing global biodiversity: the evolution and implementation of the convention on biological diversity. UK: Routledge Publishers.

Suggested Readings

  1. Şen, B., & Grillo, O. (2018) Selected Studies in Biodiversity. USA: Intech Open Publishers.
  2. Zotz, G. (2016). Plants on Plants: The biology of vascular epiphytes. Germany: Springer-Verlag.
  3. Cronk, J. K., & M. S. Fennessy (2016). Wetland plants: biology and ecology. USA: CRC Press.
  4. Pullaiah T., Bahadur, B., & Murthy, K. (2015). Plant biodiversity. Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Course Material