**Logic and reasoning SW-204**

To make the students aware of logic and critical thinking and clear communication .Moreover to give them the insight and vision to understand

the human wisdom.Identify logical relations among statements; and analyze logically complex statements into their truth- functional or quantificational components. Distinguish valid deductive arguments from invalid ones. Use truth tables and formal proofs to analyze the logic of arguments and to assess their adequacy.

Successful students will be able to:

- Distinguish the basic elements of arguments and recognize the different types of arguments.
- Symbolize natural language statements in the language of propositional and predicate logic.
- Identify logical relations among statements; and analyze logically complex statements into their truth- functional or quantificational components.
- Distinguish valid deductive arguments from invalid ones.
- Use truth tables and formal proofs to analyze the logic of arguments and to assess their adequacy.
- Understand and explain the importance of critical thinking.

. Identifiy the core skills assosiated with critucal thinking.

. Demonstrate the diffrence between deductive and inductive reasoining.

. Construct a logicallly sound and well –reasoned argument.

. Aviod the various fallicies that can arises through the misuse of logic.

**No pre requisite**

**Credit Hourse: 03**

**Course Content**

- The Nature of Logic and Philosophical Argument
- Types of Argument – Inductive and Deductive
- Validity and Soundness
- Practice with Valid and Invalid Deductive Arguments

- Types of Statements
- Universal
- Existential
- Singular

- Natural Language Translations
- Truth functional connectives
- Quantification
- Logical forms and substitution instances of these forms

- Logical Properties and Relations
- Truth tables
- Consistency
- Validity
- Equivalence
- Tautology
- Contingency
- Implication

- Formal Logical Methods
- Formal deduction for propositional logic
- direct proof
- indirect proof
- conditional proof

- Formal deduction for predicate logic
- universal instantiation and elimination
- existential instantiation and elimination

- Premise-free proofs for tautologies

- Formal deduction for propositional logic
- Inductive Arguments (optional)
- Inductive generalizations
- Inductive analogy
- Statistical syllogisms
- Hypotheses about causes, and scientific reasoning

**Recommended Books**

- “The basic philosophy” By (Nigel Warburton 4th Edition).” Thinking critically about Philosophical problems” by (Thomas F.Wall).
- “Deduction” by (Karamat Hussain).
- “Induction” by ( Karamat hussain).
- “Introduction to Logic” by (Irving copi).

**Assessment criteria**

Sessional:20

Presentation: 10

Participation: 10

Mid term: 30

Final exam:50

Monday: BS 6th Ex ppp (2 to3:30 PM)

Tuesday: BS 6th Ex ppp (3:30 to05 PM)

**Commencement of Classes ** January 13, 2020

**Mid Term Examination ** March 09-13, 2020

**Final Term Examination ** May 04-08, 2020

**Declaration of Result ** May 19, 2020